Inner Temple

From Wikishire
Jump to: navigation, search
Inner Temple


Grand Inner Temple.jpg
Hare Court within the Inner Temple
Grid reference: TQ31328098
Location: 51°30’45"N, 0°6’32"W
Owned by: The Honourable Society
of the Inner Temple

The Inner Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court; the professional associations to which all barristers in England and Wales must belong and in which they are called to the Bar. It is governed by The Honourable Society of the Inner Temple, comprising the barristers of the inn, itself governed by the Parliament of the inn and an executive council made up of the elected Benchers.

The Temple takes its name from the Knights Templar, who held the estate until their abolition in 1312, and in that time lawyers gathered here.

Almost a world of its own apart from the bustle of the city, the Inner Temple is a large, enclosed precinct containing a complex of buildings, courtyards, alleys and gardens, laid out at the western boundary of the City of London, between Fleet Street and the embankment of the River Thames. It is one of a pair with the Middle Temple which adjoins its western side. Both the Inner Temple and the Middle Temple are 'liberties' outside the jurisdiction of the City of London and recognised as local authorities in their own right: this is a status claimed by the Society as inherited from the extraordinary privileges accorded to the Knights Templar in their time.

The area of the Inns of Court is the heart of legal London, with the Temples to the south of Fleet Street and Gray's Inn and Lincoln's Inn a little way to the north. The Royal Courts of Justice were built on the north side of Fleet Street opposite the portal of the Middle Temple for this reason, with the Law Society Hall a step away on Chancery Lane and innumerable court offices, barristers' chambers and solicitors' offices within the four inns or close by.

The Inner Temple was a distinct society from at least 1388, although as with all the Inns of Court its precise date of founding is not known (and it is a convention that none of the four inns claims to be older than any other). The Temple was almost entirely destroyed in the Peasants' Revolt but later it flourished, becoming the second largest Inn during the Elizabethan period (after Gray's Inn).

The Inner Temple expanded during the reigns of King James I and King Charles I, until the Civil War caused a complete suspension of legal education[1] for almost four years. At the Restoration in 1660, the man of the Inner Temple welcomed King Charles II back to London personally with a lavish banquet.

After a period of slow decline in the 18th century, the following 100 years saw a restoration of the Temple's fortunes, with buildings constructed or restored, such as the Hall and the Library. Much of this work was destroyed during The Blitz, when the Hall, Temple, Temple Church, and many sets of chambers were devastated. Rebuilding was completed in 1959, and today the Temple is a flourishing and active Inn of Court, with over 8,000 members.


The Knights Templar and the founding of the Inner Temple

The history of the Inner Temple begins in the early years of the reign of King Henry II (1154–1189), when the contingent of Knights Templar in London moved from the Old Temple in Holborn to a new location on the banks of the River Thames, stretching from Fleet Street to what is now Essex House.[2] The original Temple covered much of what is now the northern part of Chancery Lane (originally New Street), which the Knights created to provide access to their new buildings. The old Temple eventually became the London palace of the Bishop of Lincoln (and after the Reformation it became the home of the Earl of Southampton: the location is now named 'Southampton Buildings').

The first group of lawyers came to live here during the 13th century, although as legal advisers to the Knights rather than as a society. The Knights however fell out of favour, and the order was dissolved in 1312, with the land seized by the king and granted to the Knights Hospitaller. The Hospitallers probably did not live on the property, but rather used it as a source of revenue through rent.[3]

During the 12th and 13th centuries, the law was taught in the City of London, primarily by the clergy. During the 13th century, two events happened that destroyed this form of legal education; first, a papal bull of 1207 that prohibited the clergy from teaching the common law, rather than canon law,[4] and second, a decree by King Henry III on 2 December 1234 that no institutes of legal education could exist in the City of London.[5][6] As a result, the system of legal education fell apart. The common lawyers migrated to the hamlet of Holborn, as it was easy to get to the law courts at Westminster Hall and was outside the City.[6]

Two groups occupied the Hospitaller land, and became known as the "inner inn" (occupying the consecrated buildings near the centre of the temple) and the "middle inn" (occupying the unconsecrated buildings between the "inner inn" and the Outer Temple). These became the Inner Temple and the Middle Temple, and were distinct societies by 1388, when they are mentioned in a year book.[3] The Hospitallers leased the land to the Inner Temple for £10 a year, with students coming from Thavie's Inn (now dissolved) to study there.[7]

Early years

There are few records of the Inner Temple from the 14th and 15th centuries—indeed, from all the societies, although Lincoln's Inn's records stretch back to 1422. The Temple was sacked by Wat Tyler and his rebels during the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, with buildings pulled down and records destroyed. John Stow wrote that, after breaking into Fleet Prison the rebels:

went to the Temple to destroy it, and plucked down the houses, tooke off the tyles of the other buildings left; went to the churche, tooke out all the bookes and remembrances that were m the hatches of the prentices of the law, carried them into the high street, and there burnt them. This house they spoyled for wrathe they bare to the prior of St. John's, unto whom it belonged, and, after a number of them had sacked this Temple, what with labour and what with wine being overcome, they lay down under the walls and housing,, and were slain like swyne, one of them killing another for old grudge and hatred, and others also made quick dispatch of them. A number of them that burnt the Temple went from thence to the Savoy, destroying in their way all the houses that belonged to the Hospital of St. John.[8]

John Baker thinks that the inhabitants took the opportunity to rebuild much of the Temple, and that this was when the Temple's Hall was built, since it contained 14th century roofing that would not have been available to the Knights Templar.[3] The Inns of Court were similarly attacked in Jack Cade's rebellion, although there are no specific records showing damage to the Inner Temple.[9]

With the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1539, the Hospitallers' properties were confiscated by the King, who leased them to the Inner and Middle Temples until 1573. When a favourite of King James I request to purchase the Kings estate in the Temples, the Inner and Middle Temples appealed to the King, who granted the land instead to a group of noted lawyers and Benchers, including Sir Julius Caesar and Henry Montague, and to "their heirs and assignees for ever" on the condition that the Inner and Middle Temples each paid him £10 a year.[10]

Elizabethan age

The Elizabethan age saw a large amount of rebuilding and beautification within the Temple, and with over 100 sets of chambers it was the largest Inn after Gray's Inn, with 155 residential students reported in 1574.[3]

In winter 1561, the Inner Temple was the scene of an extraordinary set of revels that celebrated the raising of Robert Dudley as the Temple's "Christmas Prince", a role he was granted in gratitude for his intervention in a dispute with the Middle Temple over Lyon's Inn, one of the Inns of Chancery that had historically been tied to the Inner Temple. Dudley's influence swayed Queen Elizabeth into asking Nicholas Bacon to rule in favour of the Inner Temple, and in gratitude the Parliament and Governors of the Inner Temple swore never to take a case against Dudley and to offer him their legal services whenever required.[11]

This pledge was always honoured, and in 1576 the Inner Temple Parliament referred to Dudley as the "chief governor of this House".[11] The play was partially documented by Gerard Legh in his Accedens of Armory, a book of heraldry woodcuts, which described Dudley's role as Prince Pallaphilos, the lieutenant of Athena and Patron of the Order of the Pegasus.[12]

Seventeenth century

The Inner Temple continued to expand during the reigns of James I and Charles I, with 1,700 students admitted to the Inn between 1600 and 1640.[3]

The outbreak of the Civil War however led to a complete suspension of legal education,[1] with the Inns almost shut down for nearly four years; the Inns "suffered a mortal collapse".[3] Nothing was done to adapt the old system of legal education, which was declining anyway, to the new climate of internal war.[13] After the end of the Civil War, the old system was not restored; Readers refused to read and both barristers and Benchers refused to follow the internal regulations.[14] The last reading at Inner Temple was made in 1678.[3]

In 1660, at the Restoration, the Inner Temple welcomed King Charles II back to London with a lavish banquet on 15 August 1661. The banquet was hosted by Sir Heneage Finch, the Speaker of the House of Commons and was attended by the King, four Dukes including the Duke of York, fourteen Earls of England, Scotland and Ireland, 6 Lords and the Chief Justice of the Common Pleas.[15] The group proceeded from Whitehall on the King's barge, landed at the Temple and walked through the Temple Garden surrounded by all the Benchers, barristers and servants of the Temple, fifty of whom brought a lavish feast for the revellers. At the start of the next legal term, two Dukes including the Duke of York, two Earls and two Lords were admitted as members, and the Duke of York was called to the Bar and made an honorary Bencher.[16] During the rule of the House of Stuart, much was done by the Court of Star Chamber to enforce religious edicts against Popery within the Inner Temple. An order was sent directly to the Benchers proclaiming that no "pson eyther convented or suspected for papistrye shulde be called eyther to the benche or to the barre", and at the same time Benchers were selected specifically because of their Protestant beliefs, with popular and successful Romanists held back.[17]

This period also features an example of the independent standing of the Temple; in 1668 the Lord Mayor of London attempted to enter the Temple with his sword, something that was his right in the City but not permitted within the Temple. The students took his sword and forced him to spend the night in a set of chambers; when he escaped and tried to return, they called the trainbands.[18] The Mayor complained to the King, who heard the case on 7 April 1669 and decided to allow it to be determined by law rather than by his royal privilege; the lawyers returned to the principle that the Temple could set its own internal rules on the right to carry swords.[19]

Eighteenth century to the present

The 18th century was a period of relative stability, with an element of decline. The Benchers of the time were described as "opposed to all modern fashions, including new-fangled comforts", with the Inn's buildings deteriorating.[20] Much of the Temple was rebuilt during the 19th century, most noticeably the Hall and Library, although fever and disease continued as a result of the Inn's still-outdated systems; the same water was used both for drinking and flushing the toilet, for example.[21]

In 1922 the Temple called Ivy Williams to the bar, making her the first female barrister in England and Wales.[20]

The Temple suffered massively during The Blitz in the Second World War; as well as attacks on 19 September 1940 and 26 September, which destroyed the Library clocktower and the Hall respectively, on 10–11 May 1941 the Inn was hit by a series of incendiaries which destroyed the inside of Temple Church, the Hall, the Library and many sets of chambers. Fires continued to burn for another day, despite the assistance of the Fire Brigade and several barristers and employees.[22]

A decision was made to put off rebuilding until after the cessation of hostilities, and plans began in 1944, when the Temple contacted the War Damage Commission to provide the £1.5 million to cover the damage. £1.4 million was provided, with the rest found elsewhere.[22] Further delays were suffered thanks to the Temple's choice of architect, Hubert Worthington, who was so slow that the Benchers ended up replacing him with his junior associate, T.W. Sutcliffe, and eventually Sir Edward Maufe. The chambers were the priority, with parts of King's Bench Walk finished in 1949,[23] and the final building (the Library) was opened on 21 April 1958.[24]

In 2001 the Inner Temple bought the neighbouring 1–2 Serjeant's Inn, which can be accessed directly from the Inner Temple, with the intention of converting it to barristers' chambers. However, instead, the premises has been let on a 99-year lease to Apex Hotels. No. 3 Serjeant's Inn has been a barristers' chambers, occupying commercial premises, since 1986.[25] Mitre Court, which connects the Inner Temple area, Serjeant's Inn and Fleet Street, is occupied as barristers' chambers, residential flats and more recently, solicitors.

Coat of arms

Arms of the Inner Temple

The coat of arms of the Inner Temple is, in blazon, "Azure a pegasus salient argent", or a Pegasus.[26] Gerard Legh is normally given the credit for having suggested the Pegasus as a coat of arms, having given an account of Robert Dudley playing the part of Prince Pallaphilos, a patron of the 'Honorable Order of Pegasus' in the 1561 Christmas revels.[27] It may alternately have come about because of the tiles in Temple Church, which show a knight on horseback with a shield and sword raised. From this point onwards, the arms were considered the Temple's property, and they were confirmed by the College of Arms in 1967.[26]


Inner Temple (and the neighbouring Middle Temple) is also one of the few remaining liberties: it is an independent extra-parochial area considered to lie within the City of London but not governed by the Corporation of London,[28] and today it is regarded as a local authority for most purposes. The Inn is equally outside the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Bishop of London.


Crown Office Row

The Inner Temple contains many buildings, some modern and some ancient, although only Temple Church dates back to the time of the Knights Templar who originally inhabited the site.[29]


Inner Temple, Farrar's Building

The Inn contains several buildings and sets of buildings used to house chambers, with those rooms above the second floor generally being residential in nature. The sets are Crown Office Row, Dr Johnson's Buildings, Farrar's Building, Francis Taylor Building, Harcourt Buildings, Hare Court, King's Bench Walk, Littleton Building, Mitre Court Buildings, Paper Buildings and Temple Gardens.[30][31]

Crown Office Row was named after the Crown Office, which used to sit on the site and was removed in 1621. The first building (described by Charles Dugdale as "the Great Brick Building over against the Garden") was constructed in 1628, and completely replaced in 1737.[32] The current buildings were designed and built by Sir Edward Maufe.[31] Charles Lamb was born in No. 2 Crown Office Row, which was destroyed during the Second World War, and Thomas Coventry maintained a set of chambers there.[33]

Harcourt Buildings were first built in 1703 by John Banks and named after Simon Harcourt, 1st Viscount Harcourt, the Treasurer of the time. There were three buildings, 50 feet wide, 27 feet deep and 3 storeys high. Replacements were constructed between 1832 and 1833, and were not particularly attractive—Hugh Bellot said that they "could scarcely be more unsightly".[34] These replacement were destroyed in 1941, and new buildings were built based on a design by Hubert Worthington.[31]

Hare Court was named after Nicholas Hare, who built the first set in 1567. The west and south sides were destroyed in the fire of 1678. On 31 May 1679 orders were given to replace the west side with four new buildings three storeys high, which were funded by the Treasurer (Thomas Hanmer) and the tenants at the time, including Judge Jeffreys.[35] The Court features a pump, the water of which was noted in the 19th century for its purity.[36]

King's Bench Walk has contained buildings since at least 1543, although these were burnt down in the Great Fire of London in 1666 and their replacements destroyed in the fire of 1677.[37] The buildings take their name from the Office of the Court of King's Bench, which was situated in the row and destroyed in the 1677 fire. Buildings were reconstructed in 1678 and 1684, and a noted inhabitant of these early constructs was Lord Mansfield.[38] The current buildings date from the first, 1678 construction to, most recently, chambers built in 1948.[31]

Mitre Court Buildings are on the site of Fuller's Rents, constructed in 1562 by John Fuller, the Temple's Treasurer.[39] Noted residents of chambers here included Sir Edward Coke.[40] Mitre Court was erected on the site in 1830, and based on a design by Robert Smirke.[31] While constructing it the labourers found a hoard of 67 Guineas dated from the reigns of monarchs from Charles II to George II, and which were confiscated by the Clerk of the Works.[41]

Paper Buildings are on the site of Heyward's Buildings, constructed in 1610.[42] The "paper" part of the name comes from the fact that they were built from timber, lath and plaster, a construction method known as "paperwork". A fire in 1838 destroyed three of the buildings, which were immediately replaced with a design by Robert Smirke, with Sydney Smirke later adding two more buildings.[31] A famous resident of (at the time) Heyward's Buildings was John Selden, who was one of the original tenants and shared a set of chambers with Heyward himself.[43]

Gardens and Gateway

Part of the Inner Temple Garden and buildings

Inner Temple Gardens were laid out around 1601, with a set of decorated railings added in 1618 with the Temple's pegasus and the griffin of Gray's Inn, a sign of the strong relationship between the two; the design was included in the new iron gates made in 1730, which are still present. The gardens contain various landmarks, including a sundial from 1707, a pair of cisterns dated from 1730 and a lead statute of a blackmoor by John Nost, which was transferred from Clifford's Inn when Clifford's was destroyed. A rookery was established during the 18th century by Edward Northey, who brought a colony of crows from his estates in Epsom to fill it.[44]

The gardens were previously noted for their roses,[45] and William Shakespeare, in King Henry VI Part I, portrayed the Wars of the Roses as starting in the Inner Temple Garden.[46]

Inner Temple Gateway

The Gateway, at the top of Inner Temple Lane on Fleet Street, is thought to have existed in the same location since the founding of the Temples by the Knights Templar. It was rebuilt in 1610 by John Bennett, the King's Serjeant-at-Arms,[47] and again rebuilt in 1748. The building above it (which is not owned by the Inn) is reputed to have been the council chambers of Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales and Charles, Prince of Wales, later King Charles I.[48]


The original Inner Temple Hall is the Hall or refectory of the original Knights Templar building on the site, and has been dated to the 8th century. It was extensively repaired in 1606 and 1629, but was still in poor condition in 1816. Despite this, little was done at that time but replacing the timbers which had gone rotten and patching the crumbling walls with brick.[49] As a result of the poor condition and the increasing numbers of barristers, it was demolished in 1868.[50]

Its replacement was a larger hall in the Gothic style, designed by Sydney Smirke, which was opened on 14 May 1870 by Princess Louise. The new Hall was 94 feet long, 41 feet wide and 40 feet high, with glass windows featuring the coats of arms of noted Treasurers from 1506 onwards running around the room.[51] There were two doors, one to the south and one to the north, which are said by William Dugdale to be the remnants of a "great carved screen" erected in 1574.[52]

The entrance to the Inner Temple from Fleet Street

The Hall was destroyed during the Second World War, and the foundation stone for the new hall was laid by Queen Elizabeth in 1952.[30] The building was designed by Hubert Worthington and opened in 1955 as part of a complex involving the Hall, Library and Benchers' Chambers.[53]


The original Library existed from at least 1506, and consisted of a single room. This was not a dedicated library, as it was also used for dining when there were too many barristers for the hall, and later for moots. By 1607 a second room had been added, and Edward Coke donated a copy of his Reports for the library a year later. The Library of the Inner Temple was far superior to those of the other Inns of Court, and "placed the House far in advance of the other societies".[54]

The Library refused to accept John Selden's manuscripts in 1654, most likely because the size of the collection would necessitate a new building, but it has been described as "the greatest loss which the Library of the Inner Temple ever sustained".[55] The Library was entirely destroyed in the Great Fire of London, but a replacement was built in 1668. A second, smaller fire in 1679 necessitated the destruction of one library building to act as a firebreak and save the hall.[55]

In 1707 the Inner Temple was offered the Petyt Manuscripts and a sum of £150 to build a new Library, which was completed in 1709 and consisted of three rooms. A Librarian was appointed immediately, and the practice continues to this day.[56] Modifications were made in 1867, 1872 and 1882 which extended the Library to eight rooms[57] A new Library was built on the site of the old one in the 19th century, with the north wing being completed in 1882, and contained 26,000 law volumes, as well as 36,000 historical and architectural texts.[58] This building was destroyed during the Second World War, and although some of the rarest manuscripts had been moved off site, 45,000 books were lost. A replacement Library was built in 1958, and currently contains approximately 70,000 books.[30]

Temple Church

Main article: Temple Church, London

Part of the Temple Church

Temple Church has been described as "the finest of the four round churches still existing in London".[59] The original Round was constructed in 1185 by the Knights Templar and consecrated by the Patriarch of Jerusalem on 10 February.[60] The church was highly regarded during this period, with William the Marshal buried there and Henry III initially making plans before changing to Westminster Abbey.[60][61]

After the fall of the Templars the church, along with the rest of the Temple, fell into the hands of the Knights Hospitaller, and from there passed to King Henry VIII at the Reformation, who appointed a priest, known as the Master of the Temple.[62] The Royal Charter granted by James I that guaranteed the independence of the Inner and Middle Temples did so on the condition that the Temples maintain the church, a requirement which has been followed to this day.[63]

During the reign of Charles II the elegant columns which had dominated the church were covered with 8-foot oak wainscotting. Repairs to the east end of the church took place in 1707, and the exterior of the north and east sides was repaired in 1737.[64] Some further repairs took place in 1811, but the main restoration happened in 1837, when Robert Smirke restored the south side and removed most of the wainscotting. This was followed with more repairs in 1845, which lowered the floor to its original height, removed ugly whitewash which had been added a century earlier and led to the discovery of a marble piscina at the east end.[65]

All of this work was destroyed on 10 May 1941 during the Second World War when firebombs gutted the church.[66][67] Over the next decade the church was restored, and it was reconsecrated in 1954 by the Archbishop of Canterbury.[68]

The Master of the Temple has a unique title in the Church of England, being entitled "the Reverend and Valiant" Master of the Temple ("valiant" as being in succession to the Knights of old).

Outside links

("Wikimedia Commons" has material
about Inner Temple)


  1. 1.0 1.1 Fletcher (1901) p. xliv
  2. Pearce (1848) p.213
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Baker, John. "Inner Temple History – Introduction – Part I". Inner Temple. Retrieved 8 November 2009. 
  4. Douthwaite (1886) p.2
  5. Ringrose (1909) p.2
  6. 6.0 6.1 Watt (1928) p.133
  7. Pearce (1848) p.214
  8. Pearce (1848) p.217
  9. Pearce (1848) p.218
  10. Pearce (1848) p.219
  11. 11.0 11.1 Axton (1970) p.365
  12. Axton (1970) p.368
  13. Holdsworth (1921) p. 207
  14. Holdsworth (1921) p. 208
  15. Pearce (1848) p.234
  16. Pearce (1848) p.235
  17. Pearce (1848) p.232
  18. Pearce (1848) p.236
  19. Pearce (1848) p.237
  20. 20.0 20.1 Baker, John. "Inner Temple History – Introduction – Part 2". Inner Temple. Retrieved 24 November 2009. 
  21. British Medical Journal (1994) p.74
  22. 22.0 22.1 Rider, Clare. "Phoenix from the Ashes: The Post-War Reconstruction Of The Inner Temple". Inner Temple. Retrieved 24 November 2009. 
  23. Rider, Clare. "Phoenix from the Ashes: The Post-War Reconstruction Of The Inner Temple – 2". Retrieved 24 November 2009. 
  24. Rider, Clare. "Phoenix from the Ashes: The Post-War Reconstruction Of The Inner Temple – 3". Retrieved 24 November 2009. 
  25. 3 Serjeant's Inn History
  26. 26.0 26.1 Baker, John: Inner Temple History – Pegasus
  27. Pearce (1848) p.220
  28. City of London (Approved Premises for Marriage) Act 1996: "By ancient custom the Honourable Society of the Inner Temple and the Honourable Society of the Middle Temple exercise powers within the areas of the Inner Temple and the Middle Temple respectively ("the Temples") concerning (inter alia) the regulation and governance of the Temples"
  29. Dugdale (1804) p.191
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 "The Buildings". Inner Temple. Retrieved 4 November 2009. 
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 31.3 31.4 31.5 "The Buildings". Inner Temple. Retrieved 4 November 2009. 
  32. Bellot (1902) p.71
  33. Bellot (1902) p.72
  34. Bellot (1902) p.88
  35. Bellot (1902) p.100
  36. Pearce (1848) p.253
  37. Bellot (1902) p.58
  38. Bellot (1902) p.59
  39. Bellot (1902) p.53
  40. Bellot (1902) p.54
  41. Bellot (1902) p.57
  42. Bellot (1902) p.69
  43. Bellot (1902) p.70
  44. Pearce (1848) p.254
  45. Baker, John Inner Temple History – The Gardens'
  46. King Henry VI Part I, Act II, Scene IV
  47. Pearce (1848) p. 251
  48. Baker, John. "Inner Temple History – The Buildings – The Gateway". Inner Temple. Retrieved 22 November 2009. 
  49. Bellot (1902) p.40
  50. Bellot (1902) p.41
  51. Bellot (1902) p.45
  52. Bellot (1902) p.46
  53. "Inner Temple History – The Buildings – Hall, Treasury, Benchers' Rooms and Library". Inner Temple. Retrieved 4 November 2009. 
  54. Bellot (1902) p.48
  55. 55.0 55.1 "Library History". Inner Temple. Retrieved 4 November 2009. 
  56. "Library History – 18th century". Inner Temple. Retrieved 4 November 2009. 
  57. "Library History – 19th century". Inner Temple. Retrieved 4 November 2009. 
  58. Bellot (1902) p.49
  59. Ringrose (1909) p.15
  60. 60.0 60.1 "Temple Church History". Temple Church. Retrieved 12 November 2009. 
  61. "Temple Church History – The Round Church". Temple Church. Retrieved 12 November 2009. 
  62. Temple Church History – The Fall of the Templars
  63. "Temple Church History – The Royal Charter". Temple Church. Retrieved 12 November 2009. 
  64. Ringrose (1909) p.16
  65. Ringrose (1909) p.17
  66. "Temple Church History – The 20th century". Temple Church. Retrieved 12 November 2009. 
  67. "Temple Church History – Victorian Restoration". Temple Church. Retrieved 12 November 2009. 
  68. "Inner Temple History – The Buildings – Temple Church". Inner Temple. Retrieved 12 November 2009. 
  • Aikenhead, Ian D. (1977). "Students of the Common Law 1590–1615: Lives and Ideas at the Inns of Court". The University of Toronto Law Journal (University of Toronto) 27 (3). SSN 0042-0220. 
  • Axton, Marie (1970). "Robert Dudley and the Inner Temple Revels". The Historical Journal (Cambridge University Press). SSN 1469-5103. 
  • Bellot, Hugh (1902). The Inner and Middle Temple, legal, literary, and historic associations. London: Methuen & Co.. OCLC 585828. 
  • Boyer, Allen D. (2003). Sir Edward Coke and the Elizabethan Age. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-4809-8. 
  • "Fever in the Inner Temple". The British Medical Journal (BMJ publishing group) 1 (1202). 1884. SSN 0959-8138. 
  • Douthwaite, William Ralph (1886). Gray's Inn, Its History & Associations. Reeves and Turner. OCLC 2578698. 
  • Dugdale, William and Herbert, William: 'Antiquities of the Inns of court and chancery: containing historical and descriptive sketches relative to their original foundation, customs, ceremonies, buildings, government, &c., &c., with a concise history of the English law' (Vernor and Hood, 1804)
  • Fletcher, Reginald (1901). The Pension book of Gray's Inn (records of the honourable society) 1569–1669. vol. I. Chiswick Press. OCLC 59205885. 
  • Holdsworth, William (1921). "The Disappearance of the Educational System of the Inns of Court". University of Pennsylvania Law Review and American Law Register (University of Pennsylvania) 69 (3). SSN 0749-9833. 
  • {{cite book|last=Hyde|first=H. Montgomery|title=Norman Birkett: The Life of Lord Birkett of Ulverston|publisher=[[Hamish Hamilton|year=1965|asin=B000O8CESO|oclc=255057963}}
  • Jones, E.A. (1939). "Silver at the Inner Temple". The Burlington Magazine (The Burlington Magazine Publications, Ltd.) 75 (436). SSN 0951-0788. 
  • Loftie, W J (1895). The Inns of Court and Chancery. New York: Macmillan & co.. OCLC 592845. 
  • Pearce, Robert Richard (1848). History of the Inns of Court and Chancery: With Notices of Their Ancient Discipline, Rules, Orders, and Customs, Readings, Moots, Masques, Revels, and Entertainments. R. Bentley. OCLC 16803021. 
  • Ringrose, Hyacinthe (1909). The Inns of Court: an historical description of the Inns of court and chancery of England. Oxford: R.L. Williams. OCLC 80561477. 
  • Watt, Francis; Dunbar Plunket Barton; Charles Benham (1928). The Story of the Inns of Court. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. OCLC 77565485. 

The Inns of Court

Gray's InnLincoln's InnInner TempleMiddle Temple

Faculty of AdvocatesInn of Court of Northern IrelandKing's Inns