Lincoln's Inn

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Lincoln's Inn

Middlesex

Lincoln's Inn-4605045082.jpg
Within Lincoln's Inn
Location
Grid reference: TQ30928148
Location: 51°31’2"N, 0°6’52"W
History
Information
Owned by: The Honourable Society
of Lincoln's Inn

Lincoln's Inn is one of the four Inns of Court in London to which inns all barristers of England and Wales must belong to be called to the Bar. The Inn is recognised to be one of the world's most prestigious professional bodies of judges and lawyers. It is governed by The Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn.

This is the largest of the four Inns, covering 11 acres in Holborn, just beyond the north-western bounds of the City of London. The other three are the Middle Temple and the Inner Temple within the edge of the City and Gray's Inn just to the north. The Inn is believed to be named after Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln.

Lincoln's Inn is also well known for its large garden and library, which have existed since 1422.[1]

This is part of the heart of legal London, with the other Inns of Court close by and the Royal Courts of Justice and Law Society Hall almost adjacent.

Lincoln's Inn does not declare a specific foundation date, as there is a tradition that none of the Inns of Court regards itself to be any older than the others.[2]

History

During the 12th and 13th century, the law was taught in the City of London primarily by the clergy. During the 13th century, two events happened which destroyed this form of legal education: first, a decree by King Henry III on 2 December 1234 that no institutes of legal education could exist in the City of London,[3] and, second, a papal bull that prohibited the clergy from teaching the common law, rather than canon law.[4] As a result, the system of legal education fell apart. The common lawyers migrated to the hamlet of Holborn, near to the law courts at Westminster Hall and outside the City.[4]

As with the other Inns of Court, the precise date of founding of Lincoln's Inn is unknown. The Inn can claim the oldest records – its "black books" documenting the minutes of the governing Council go back to 1422, and the earliest entries show that the Inn was at that point an organised and disciplined body.[5] The Third Earl of Lincoln had encouraged lawyers to move to Holborn, and they moved to Thavie's Inn, one of the Inns of Chancery, later expanding into Furnival's Inn as well.[6] It is felt that Lincoln's Inn became a formally organised Inn of Court soon after the Earl's death in 1310.[7]

At some point before 1422, the greater part of "Lincoln's Inn", as they had become known, after the Earl, moved to the estate of Ralph Neville, the Bishop of Chichester, near Chancery Lane. They retained Thavie's and Furnival's Inn, using them as "training houses" for young lawyers, and fully purchased the properties in 1550 and 1547 respectively.[8] In 1537, the land Lincoln's Inn sat on was sold by Bishop Richard Sampson to a Bencher named William Suliard, and his son sold the land to Lincoln's Inn in 1580.[9] The Inn became formally organised as a place of legal education thanks to a decree in 1464, which required a Reader to give lectures to the law students there.[10]

During the 15th century, the Inn was not a particularly prosperous one, and the Benchers, particularly John Fortescue, are credited with fixing this situation.[11]

Buildings and architectural points of note

The Inn is situated between Chancery Lane and Lincoln's Inn Fields, north of Inner and Middle Temples and south of Gray's Inn. The Inn is surrounded by a brick wall separating it from the neighbourhood; this was first erected in 1562, and it is said that Ben Jonson did some of the brickwork.[12] The only surviving part is that on that on the western side between the North Lawn and the Fields. As well as the major buildings discussed below, the Inn consists of three squares; Old Square, Old Buildings, Stone Buildings and Hardwicke buildings.

Early 16th century murals uncovered in 1969–1970

First built in 1683, New Square, sometimes known as Serle Court,[13] finished in about 1697. New Square was originally named Serle's Court because it was built as a compromise between the Inn and Henry Serle over ownership of the land. A compromise was made in 1682, and Serle built eleven brick sets of chambers on three sides of the square between 1682 and 1693.[14] Alterations were made in 1843, when the open area in the middle was replaced by gardens and lawns. Because of its difficult history of ownership, some parts of the Square are still freehold, with individuals owning floors or sections of floors within the buildings.[15] The Lincoln's Inn Act 1860 was passed directly to allow the Inn to charge the various freeholders in the Square fees.[16]

Stone Buildings was built between 1775 and 1780 using the designs of Robert Taylor, with the exception of No. 7, which was completed the range in the same style in 1845.[17] The design was originally meant to be part of a massive rebuilding of the entire Inn, but this was never completed.[18] Stone Buildings were seriously damaged during The Blitz, but their external appearance remains much the same. From 'within' it appears as a cul de sac rather than a square, the two ranges closed to the north with a third which originally contained the library. The eastern side along Chancery Lane and the western backing onto the North Lawn. These provide the standard layout of 'staircases' of working chambers. From the North Lawn there is no access but the west range provides a fine institutional range of some distinction.

No. 10 was originally provided by the Inn to strengthen its ties with Chancery (which used to be held in the Old Hall) as the office of the Six Clerks of the Court of Chancery, with the Inn taking it back when the Clerks were abolished and the Court moved to the Royal Courts of Justice in 1882.[15] It is currently used as the headquarters of the Inns of Court and City Yeomanry, part of the Territorial Army. The Officers Mess facilities make use of the principal rooms. Lincoln's Inn has maintained a corps of volunteers in times of war since 1585, when 95 members of the Inn made a pledge to protect Queen Elizabeth against Spain. King George III gave the then-temporary unit the epithet "The Devil's Own", which remains attached to the Regiment to this day.[15] There is a large War Memorial between New Square and the North lawn containing the names of the members of the Inn killed in the First and Second World Wars.

Lincoln's Inn, building 1 to 4

Old Square and Old Buildings were built between 1525 and 1609, initially running between numbers 1 and 26. Although 1 exists near the Gatehouse, the others now only run from 16 to 24, with some buildings having been merged to the point where the entrances for 25 and 26 now frame windows, not doorways. Hardwicke Buildings was built in the 1960s, was originally named 'Hale Court', between the east range of New Square name changed in the 1990s. The buildings of Lincoln's Inn in Old Square, New Square and Stone Buildings are normally divided into four or five floors of chambers, with residential flats on the top floor. The buildings are used both by barristers and solicitors and other professional bodies.[15]

Old Hall

Lincoln's Inn Old Hall

The Old Hall dates from at least 1489, when it replaced the smaller "Bishops Hall". The Old Hall is 71 feet long and 32 feet wide, although little remains of the original size and shape; it was significantly altered in 1625, 1652, 1706 and 1819.[19] A former librarian reported that it was "extensively remodelled" by Francis Bernasconi in 1800. This remodelling led to the covering of the oak beams with a curved plaster ceiling, "a most barbarous innovation".[19] The weight of the plaster created the risk that the roof would collapse, and between 1924 and 1927 Sir John Simpson dismantled the entire hall, straightening warped timbers, removing the plaster, replacing any unserviceable sections and then putting the entire hall back together. It was reopened on 22 November 1928 by Queen Mary.

As well as its use for revels, moots and feasts, the Old Hall was also used as a court. The Master of the Rolls sat there between 1717 and 1724 while the Rolls Court was being rebuilt, and Lord Talbot used it as a court in 1733.

From 1737 onward, Lincoln's Inn Hall was used to house the Court of Chancery, a practice that ended with the opening of the Royal Courts of Justice.[19] This is the court made infamous in its day for delay and cost, as portrayed in Charles Dickens's Bleak House: the novel opens with "London. Michaelmas Term lately over, and the Lord Chancellor sitting in Lincoln's Inn Hall".

In 2010 the Old Hall was refurbished and its Crypt was improved and made more accessible by the installation of a stairs from the outside.

The hall is now used for examinations, lectures, social functions[20] and can be hired for private events.

Chapel

17th century vaulted undercroft below the chapel
The Chapel

The first mention of a chapel in Lincoln's Inn comes from 1428. By the 17th century, this had become too small, and discussions started about building a new one in 1608.[21] The current chapel was built between 1620 and 1623 by Inigo Jones, and was extensively rebuilt in 1797 and again in 1883. Other repairs took place in 1685, after the consultation of Christopher Wren, and again in 1915. The chapel is built on a fan-vaulted, open undercroft[22] and has acted (sometimes simultaneously) as a crypt, meeting place and place of recreation. For many years only Benchers were allowed to be buried in the Crypt, with the last interred on 15 May 1852. Before that, however, it was open to any member or servant of the society; in 1829 a former Preacher was interred, and in 1780 William Turner, described as "Hatch-keeper and Washpot to this Honble. Society", was buried.[23]

The chapel has a bell said to date from 1596, although this is not considered likely. Traditionally, the bell would chime a curfew at 9 pm, with a stroke for each year of the current Treasurer's age. The bell would also chime between 12:30 and 1:00 pm when a Bencher had died.[21] Inside the chapel are six stained glass windows, three on each side, designed by the Van Linge family.[24]

The chapel's first pipe organ was a Flight & Robson model installed in 1820.[25] A substantial William Hill organ replaced it in 1856; a model designed at the peak of his skill, with thick lead and tin pipes,[26] a set of pedals, and three manuals.[25] During its service years it was rebuilt nine times, the final overhaul carried out in 1969. In the 2000s the organ, increasingly unreliable, was seen to have little unaltered initial material, with little hope of returning it to original condition, and it was replaced with a Kenneth Tickell model, the new organ installed during 2009–2010.[25]

The chapel is used for concerts throughout the year.

Great Hall

The Great Hall, or New Hall, was constructed during the 19th century. The Inn's membership had grown to the point where the Old Hall was too small for meetings, and so the Benchers decided to construct a new hall, also containing sizable rooms for their use, and a library. The new building was designed by Philip Hardwick, with the foundation stone laid on 20 April 1843 by James Lewis Knight-Bruce, the Treasurer.[27]

The building was completed by 1845, and opened by Queen Victoria on 30 October.[20] The Hall is 120 feet long, 45 feet wide, and 62 feet high, much larger than the Old Hall.[28] The Great Hall is used for the call to the Bar, as a dining place and for concerts arranged through the Bar Musical Society.[20]

The lower ground floor was divided by a mezzanine in 2007 and the upper part became the Members Common Room for informal dining and with a lounge. It replaced the Junior Common Room, Barristers Members Room and Benchers Room as a social facility. In effect it is a club providing bar and restaurant facilities for all 'entitled' persons, i.e. members of the Inn and its bona fide tenants.

Library

The Library (left) and Benchers' rooms (right)

The Library was first mentioned in 1471, and originally existed in a building next to the Old Hall before being moved to a set of chambers at No. 2 Stone Buildings in 1787. A bequest by John Nethersale in 1497 is recorded as an early acquisition.[29]

The current Library was built as part of the complex containing the Great Hall, to the designs of Hardwick and was finished in 1845 being formally opened by Queen Victoria. At this point it was 80 feet long, 40 feet wide and 44 feet high.[30] It was extended, almost doubled, in 1872 by George Gilbert Scott in the same style. The ground floor contained a Court room which became part of the Library facilities when the Court of Chancery moved out of the Inn in the 1880s. It has since 2010 been utilised as a lecture room and during the developments of 2016 to 2018 became the 'interim' Members Common Room.

The Library contains a large collection of rare books, including the Hale Manuscripts, the complete collection of Sir Matthew Hale, which he left to the Inn on his death in 1676. The Library also contains over 1,000 other rare manuscripts, and approximately 2,000 pamphlets.[31] The total collection of the Library, including textbooks and practitioners works, is approximately 150,000 volumes. The collection also includes a complete set of Parliamentary records.[32] The Library is open to all students and barristers of Lincoln's Inn, as well as outside scholars and solicitors by application.

The Library is primarily a reference library, so borrowing is restricted. The only other lending service available is offered by Middle Temple Library, which permits barristers and students of any Inn, on production of suitable ID, to borrow current editions of textbooks that are not loose-leaf – but not any other material – half an hour before closing for return by half an hour after opening the following day.[33]

Gatehouse

Gatehouse of Lincoln's Inn

The Gatehouse from Chancery Lane is the oldest existing part of the Inn, and was built between 1518 and 1521.[34] The Gatehouse was mainly built thanks to the efforts of Sir Thomas Lovell, the Treasurer at the time, who provided at least a third of the funds and oversaw the construction itself—as a result, his coat of arms hang on the gate, along with those of the Earl of Lincoln and King Henry VIII (the king at the time).[35]

The Gatehouse is a large tower four stories high and features diagonal rows of darker bricks, along with a set of oak gates that date from 1564. The Gatehouse was restored in 1695 and again between 1967 and 1969—the arms of the Treasurers for those years (Lord Upjohn, John Hawles and Princess Margaret) were added to the inwards side of the Gatehouse itself. Minor repairs also took place in 1815, when the three Coats of Arms were repaired and cleaned.[36] The image shown here however is in fact the Victorian Gated Entrance to Lincoln's Inn from Lincoln's Inn Fields, and is not to be confused with the ancient Gatehouse of the Eastern wall adjoining Chancery Lane.

New Square Lawn

The New Square Lawn is surrounded by the block of New Square. It is bordered by the Lincoln Inn chambers, and is visible from the Gatehouse. Centered on the New Square Lawn is Jubilee Fountain. After the original fountain from 1970 was removed, William Pye installed the new Jubilee fountain in 2003, to celebrate Queen Elizabeth's Golden Jubilee.[37] The construction of the fountain was funded by David Shirley.

The Jubilee fountain is a two tier fountain centred in New Square.

Underground Terrace, New Library and New Teaching Facilities

The Inn has self funded a major improvement and extension of its facilities from 2016 due for completion in 2018. The Inn being a conservation area and consisting of listed buildings could not simply add modern structures within the precincts without considerable difficulty of their impact on the current layout and planning objections by interest groups, as well indeed from members of the Inn. The improvement requirements for the Library and teaching activities were partly addressed by demolition of the Under Treasurer's House on the north side of the Library, which was a post WW2 building, replacing it an extension to the Reading Rooms and Book Stack. The solution of providing a 150-seat Lecture Theatre and Tutorial Rooms was to exploit the space under the large east Terrace of the Great Hall. This when completed will hardly be noticeable as the only visible change shall be a staircase on the unused part of the Terrace and plate windows lying flush with the 'floor' to provide natural top lighting.

Coat of arms

The arms of Lincoln's Inn

For many years, the Inn used the arms of Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln as their own; in blazon, a "lion rampant purpure in a field or", or a purple lion on a gold field. Around 1699, Sir Richard Holford discovered the Inn's own coat of arms on a manuscript, granted to them in 1516. The arms are "azure seme de fer moline or, on a dexter canton or a lion rampant purpure". Following validation using some heraldry books, the arms were placed first in the council chamber and then in the library. Since then, they have been used continuously in Lincoln's Inn.[38]

68 Signal Squadron

68 Signal Squadron

The Inns of Court Regiment was a volunteer militia unit formed by volunteers from the four Inns of Court, and which was formalised within the Territorial Army in 1908. The Regiment was merged with the City of London Yeomanry and later The Essex Yeomanry to form in 1961 the 68 (Inns of Court & City and Essex Yeomanry) Signal Squadron, part of the Royal Corps of Signals. The headquarters of the 68 Signal Squadron today are at 10 Stone Buildings within Lincoln's Inn.

See also

Outside links

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References

  1. "History of the Inn: Origins". The Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn. http://www.lincolnsinn.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=145&Itemid=213. 
  2. "Lincoln's Inn Fields | British History Online". British-history.ac.uk. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/old-new-london/vol3/pp44-50. Retrieved 2017-10-01. 
  3. Douthwaite (1886) p.2
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Uncommon counsel (2): Barts, butchers and barristers". Counsel. https://www.counselmagazine.co.uk/articles/uncommon-counsel-2-barts-butchers-and-barristers. Retrieved 1 October 2017. 
  5. Barton (1928) p.7
  6. Barton (1928) p.256
  7. Spilsbury (1850) p.32
  8. Barton (1928) p.257
  9. Barton (1928) p.258
  10. Ringrose (1909) p.81
  11. Pulling (1884) p.142
  12. Edward (1860) p.96
  13. Spilsbury (1850 p.35
  14. Spilsbury (1850 p.81
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Lincoln's Inn History – Chambers
  16. Catt, Richard (1997). "Small urban spaces: part 8 – protecting London squares". Structural Survey (Emerald) 15 (1): 34–35. doi:10.1108/02630809710164715. SSN 0263-080X. 
  17. Spilsbury (1850) p. 36
  18. Spilsbury (1850 p. 83
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 Barton (1928) p.261
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 Lincolns Inn History – Great Hall
  21. 21.0 21.1 "The Chapel". The Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn. Archived from the original on 2014-05-31. https://web.archive.org/web/20140531010344/http://lincolnsinn.org.uk/index.php/history-of-the-inn/historic-buildings-ca/the-chapel. Retrieved 2014-08-07. 
  22. Teller, Matthew (2004). The Rough Guide to Britain. Rough Guides. p. 114. ISBN 978-1-84353-301-6. https://books.google.com/books?id=AOt1Hb8MOQUC&lpg=PA114&q=%22fan-vaulted%20open%20undercroft%22. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  23. Barton (1928) p.263
  24. Barton (1928) p.264
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 "AES London 2011 Organ Recital". Audio Engineering Society. http://www.aes.org/events/130/specialevents/?ID=2708. Retrieved 24 April 2011. 
  26. Thistlethwaite, Nicholas (2009). The making of the Victorian organ. Cambridge University Press. p. 237. ISBN 0-521-66364-4. 
  27. Barton (1928) p.267
  28. Barton (1928) p.268
  29. page 48 'The Library of Lincoln's Inn' University of London; Rye, Reginald Arthur, 1876–1945; University of California Libraries (1908), The libraries of London: a guide for students, London, University of London, http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/1014000, retrieved 23 February 2014 
  30. Edward (1860) p.97
  31. "Lincolns Inn History – Rare books and manuscripts". Lincoln's Inn. Archived from the original on 2 October 2006. https://web.archive.org/web/20061002041437/http://www.lincolnsinn.org.uk/lib_rare.asp. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  32. "Lincolns Inn History – Scope of the collection". Lincoln's Inn. Archived from the original on 2 October 2006. https://web.archive.org/web/20061002041339/http://www.lincolnsinn.org.uk/lib_scope.asp. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  33. "Services". Lincolnsinn.org.uk. http://www.lincolnsinn.org.uk/index.php/library/services. Retrieved 2017-10-01. 
  34. Loftie (1895) p.175
  35. Barton (1928) p.262t
  36. Ringrose (1909) p.78
  37. "Jubilee Fountain – Work William Pye Water Sculpture". Williampye.com. http://www.williampye.com/works/jubilee-fountain. Retrieved 2017-10-01. 
  38. Pearce (1848) p.135
  • Barton, Dunbar Plunket; Benham, Charles; Watt, Francis (1928). The Story of the Inns of Court. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. OCLC 77565485. 
  • Douthwaite, William Ralph (1886). Gray's Inn, Its History & Associations. Reeves and Turner. OCLC 2578698. 
  • Draper, Warwick (1906). "The Watts Fresco in Lincoln's Inn". The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs 9 (37). SSN 0951-0788. 
  • Loftie, W J (1895). The Inns of Court and Chancery. New York: Macmillan & co.. OCLC 592845. 
  • Pearce, Robert Richard (1848). History of the Inns of Court and Chancery: With Notices of Their Ancient Discipline, Rules, Orders, and Customs, Readings, Moots, Masques, Revels, and Entertainments. R. Bentley. OCLC 16803021. 
  • Pulling, Alexander (1884). The Order of the Coif. William Clows & Sons Ltd. OCLC 2049459. 
  • Ringrose, Hyacinthe (1909). The Inns of Court An Historical Description. Oxford: R.L. Williams. OCLC 60732875. 
  • Simpson, A.W.B. (1970). "The Early Constitution of the Inns of Court". Cambridge Law Journal (Cambridge University Press) 34 (1). SSN 0008-1973. 
  • Spilsbury, William Holden (1850). Lincoln's inn; its ancient and modern buildings: with an account of the library. W. Pickering. OCLC 316910934. 
  • Stanford, Edward (1860). Stanford's new London guide. Stanford Edward, ltd. OCLC 60205994. 


The Inns of Court

Gray's InnLincoln's InnInner TempleMiddle Temple

Faculty of AdvocatesInn of Court of Northern IrelandKing's Inns