Liverpool is a major city in southern Lancashire. It stands on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary.
Liverpool was founded as a borough by King John in 1207 and was granted city status in 1880. Liverpool is the fourth largest city in the United Kingdom, with a population of 435,500, and lies at the centre of the wider "Liverpool Urban Area", which has a population of 816,216.
The urbanisation and expansion of Liverpool were both largely brought about by the city's status as a major port. By the 18th century, trade from the West Indies, Ireland and Europe coupled with the Atlantic slave trade furthered the economic expansion of Liverpool. By the early 19th century, 40% of the world's trade passed through Liverpool's docks, contributing to Liverpool's rise as a major city.
The popularity of The Beatles and the other groups from the "Merseybeat" era contributes to Liverpool's status as a tourist destination; tourism forms a significant part of the city's modern economy. In 2007 the city celebrated its 800th anniversary, and in 2008 it held the European Capital of Culture title together with Stavanger in Norway.
- 1 The city
- 2 History
- 3 Churches
- 4 Other religions
- 5 People
- 6 Economy
- 7 Sights of the city
- 8 Quotes about Liverpool
- 9 Outside links
- 10 Further reading
- 11 References
Liverpool has been described as having "the most splendid setting of any English city." Liverpool is built across a ridge of sandstone hills rising up to a height of around 230 feet above sea-level at Everton Hill, which represents the southern boundary of the West Lancashire Coastal Plain. Liverpool's Urban Area runs directly into Bootle, Crosby and Maghull to the north, and Kirkby, Huyton, Prescot and Halewood to the east. The city faces Wallasey and Birkenhead across the River Mersey in Cheshire to the west.
Inhabitants of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians but are also colloquially known as "Scousers", in reference to the local dish known as "scouse", a form of stew. The word "Scouse" has also become synonymous with the unique Liverpool accent and dialect; a synthesis of south Lancashire, Ulster, Irish and other influences.
As a port city, Liverpool has attracted a diverse population, drawn from a wide range of peoples, cultures, and religions, particularly those from Ireland. The city is also home to the oldest Black African community in the country and the oldest Chinese community in Briatin or Europe.
In 2004, several areas throughout the city centre were granted World Heritage Site status by UNESCO. Referred to as the Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City, the site comprises six separate locations in the city including the Pier Head, Albert Dock and William Brown Street and includes many of the city's most famous landmarks.
Waterfront and docks
As a major British port, the docks in Liverpool have historically been central to the city's development. Several major docking firsts have occurred in the city including the construction of the world's first enclosed wet dock (the Old Dock) in 1715 and the first ever hydraulic lifting cranes.
The most well known dock in Liverpool is the Albert Dock, which was constructed in 1846 and today comprises the largest single collection of Grade I listed buildings anywhere in Britain. Built under the guidance of Jesse Hartley, it was considered to be one of the most advanced docks anywhere in the world upon completion and is often attributed with helping the city to become one of the most important ports in the world. North of the city centre is Stanley Dock, home to the Stanley Dock Tobacco Warehouse, which was at the time of its construction in 1901, the world's largest building in terms of area and today stands as the world's largest brick-work building.
In recent years, several areas along Liverpool's waterfront have undergone significant redevelopment. Amongst the notable recent developments are the construction of the Echo Arena Liverpool and BT Convention Centre on Kings Dock, Alexandra Tower and 1 Princes Dock on Princes Dock and Liverpool Marina around Coburg and Brunswick Docks.
The Three Graces
One of the most famous locations in Liverpool is the Pier Head, renowned for the trio of buildings – the Royal Liver Building, the Cunard Building and the Port of Liverpool Building – which stand there. These building are collectively known as The Three Graces, and stand as a testament to the great wealth in the city during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Built in subtly different architectural styles, they are recognised as being the symbol of Maritime Liverpool, and are regarded by many as contributing to one of the most impressive waterfronts in the world.
In recent years the local council has considered various plans by modern architects to add a "fourth grace" in a contrasting modern or post-modern style, each of which has, thankfully, fallen by the wayside so far.
Commercial District and Cultural Quarter
Liverpool's historic position as one of the most important trading ports in the world has meant that over time many grand buildings have been constructed in the city as headquarters for shipping firms, insurance companies, banks and other large firms. The great wealth this brought, then allowed for the development of grand civic buildings, which were designed to allow the local administrators to 'run the city with pride'.
The commercial district is centred around the Castle Street, Dale Street and Old Hall Street areas of the city, with many of the area's roads still following their mediaeval layout. Having developed over a period of three centuries the area is regarded as one of the most important architectural locations in the city, as recognised by its inclusion in Liverpool's World Heritage site. The oldest building in the area is the Grade I listed Liverpool Town Hall, which is located at the top of Castle Street and dates from 1754. Often regarded as the city's finest piece of Georgian architecture, the building is noted as one of the most extravagantly decorated civic buildings anywhere in Britain. Also on Castle Street is the Grade I listed Bank of England Building, constructed between 1845 and 1848, as one of only three provincial branches of the national bank. Amongst the other noted buildings in the area are the Tower Buildings, Albion House (the former White Star Line headquarters), the Municipal Buildings and Oriel Chambers, which is considered to be one of the earliest Modernist style buildings ever built.
The area around William Brown Street is referred to as the city's 'Cultural Quarter', owing to the presence of numerous civic buildings, including the William Brown Library, Walker Art Gallery, Picton Reading Rooms and World Museum Liverpool. The area is dominated by neo-classical architecture, of which the most prominent, St George's Hall, is widely regarded as the best example of a neo-classical building anywhere in Europe. A Grade I listed building, it was constructed between 1840 and 1855 to serve a variety of civic functions in the city and its doors are inscribed with "S.P.Q.L." (Latin senatus populusque Liverpudliensis), meaning the "the senate and people of Liverpool", a local variant of the famous Roman SPQR.
William Brown Street is also home to numerous public monuments and sculptures, including Wellington's Column and the Steble Fountain. Many others are located around the area, particularly in St John's Gardens, which was specifically developed for this purpose.
By a charter in 1207, King John announced the foundation of the borough of Liverpool, but by the middle of the 16th century the population was still only around 500. The original street plan of Liverpool is said to have been designed by King John at the time of its foundation as a borough. The original seven streets were laid out in an 'H' shape:
- Bank Street (now Water Street)
- Castle Street
- Chapel Street
- Dale Street
- Juggler Street (now High Street)
- Moor Street (now Tithebarn Street)
- Whiteacre Street (now Old Hall Street)
In the 17th century there was slow progress in trade and population growth. Battles for the town were waged during the English Civil War, including an eighteen-day siege in 1644.
In 1699 Liverpool was made a parish by Act of Parliament, and in the same year its first slave ship, Liverpool Merchant, set sail for Africa. As trade from the West Indies surpassed that of Ireland and Europe, and as the River Dee silted up, Liverpool began to grow. The first commercial wet dock was built in Liverpool in 1715. Substantial profits from the slave trade helped the town to prosper and rapidly grow. By the close of the century Liverpool controlled over 41% of Europe's and 80% of Britain's slave commerce.
By the start of the 19th century, 40% of the world's trade was passing through Liverpool and the construction of major buildings reflected this wealth. In 1830, Liverpool and Manchester became the first cities to have an intercity rail link, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. The population continued to rise rapidly, especially during the 1840s when Irish migrants began arriving by the hundreds of thousands, many as a result of the Irish Potato Famine of 1845–1849. By 1851, approximately 25% of the city's population was Irish-born. During the first part of the 20th century, Liverpool was drawing immigrants from across Europe.
Liverpool was the port of registry of the Titanic, the luxury liner that sunk in April 1912 with the loss of 1,517 lives, including numerous Liverpudlians. A Memorial to the Engine Room Heroes of the Titanic is located on the city's waterfront.
The Housing Act 1919 resulted in mass council housing building across Liverpool during the 1920s and 1930s. Thousands of families were rehoused from the inner-city to new suburban housing estates, based on the pretext that this would improve their standard of living. A large number of private homes were also built during this era. The process continued after the Second World War, with many more new housing estates being built in suburban areas, while some of the older inner city areas were also redeveloped for new homes.
As a major port, shipbuilding and industrial town, Liverpool became a prime target for German bombing during the Second World War. The Germans made 80 air-raids on Liverpool and the surrounding towns, killing 2,500 people and causing damage to almost half the homes in the metropolitan area. Significant rebuilding followed the war, including massive housing estates and the Seaforth Dock, the largest dock project in Britain. Much of the immediate reconstruction of the city centre has been deeply unpopular, and was as flawed as much town planning renewal in the 1950s and 1960s – the portions of the city's heritage that survived German bombing could not withstand the efforts of urban renewal. Since 1952 Liverpool has been twinned with Cologne, Germany, a city which also experienced aerial bombing during the war.
In the 1960s Liverpool was the centre of the "Merseybeat" sound which became synonymous with The Beatles and fellow Liverpudlian rock bands.
From the mid-1970s onwards Liverpool's docks and traditional manufacturing industries went into sharp decline. The advent of containerisation meant that the city's docks became largely obsolete. In the early 1980s unemployment rates in Liverpool were among the highest in the United Kingdom. In recent years, Liverpool's economy has recovered and has experienced growth rates higher than the national average since the mid-nineties.
At the end of the 20th century Liverpool was concentrating on regeneration, a process which still continues today.
To celebrate the Golden Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II in 2002, the conservation charity Plantlife organised a competition to choose county flowers and also city flowers for the major cities. The sea-holly was Liverpool's final choice.
Capitalising on the popularity of 1960s rock groups, such as The Beatles, as well as the city's world-class art galleries, museums and landmarks, tourism has also become a significant factor in Liverpool's economy.
In 2004, the Duke of Westminster's property company, Grosvenor, started the Paradise Project, a £920 million development centered on Paradise Street, which involved the most significant changes to Liverpool's city centre since the post-war reconstruction. Renamed 'Liverpool 1', the centre opened in May 2008.
In 2007 the city celebrated the 800th anniversary of the foundation of the borough of Liverpool, for which a number of events were planned. Liverpool is a joint European Capital of Culture for 2008. The main celebrations, in September 2008, included La Princesse, a large mechanical spider which is 66 feet high and weighs 36½ tons, and represents, according to the artist, the "eight legs" of Liverpool: honour, history, music, the Mersey, the ports, governance, sunshine and culture. La Princesse roamed the streets of the city during the festivities, and concluded by entering the Queensway Tunnel.
Second city of the Empire
Liverpool was described as "Second city of the Empire" by Benjamin Disraeli, the Prime Minister associated with the height of Britain's Imperial ambition. For periods during the 19th century the wealth of Liverpool exceeded that of London itself, and Liverpool's Custom House was the single largest contributor to the British Exchequer. Liverpool's status can be judged from the fact that it was the only British city ever to have its own Whitehall office.
The first United States consul anywhere in the world, James Maury, was appointed to Liverpool in 1790, and remained in office for 39 years.
As early as 1851 the city was described as "the New York of Europe" and its buildings, constructed on a heroic, even megalomaniacal scale stand witness to the supreme confidence and ambition of the city at the turn of the 20th century. Liverpool was also the site of the United Kingdom's first provincial airport, operating from 1930.
Elgar's Pomp and Circumstance March No.1, often seen as Britain's Imperial anthem, was dedicated by the composer to the Liverpool Orchestral Society and had its premiere in the city in October 1901.
During the Second World War, the critical strategic importance of Liverpool was recognised by both Hitler and Churchill, with the city suffering a blitz second only to London's, and the pivotal Battle of the Atlantic being planned, fought and won from Liverpool.
Inventions and innovations
The first School for the Blind, High School for Girls, council house and Juvenile Court were all founded in Liverpool. The RSPCA, NSPCC, Age Concern, Relate, Citizen's Advice Bureau and Legal Aid all evolved from work in the city.
In the field of public health, the first lifeboat station, public baths and wash-houses, sanitary act, William Henry Duncan|medical officer for health, district nurse, slum clearance, purpose-built ambulance, X-ray medical diagnosis, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine|school of tropical medicine, motorised municipal fire-engine, free school milk and school meals, cancer research centre, and zoonosis research centre all originated in Liverpool. The first British Nobel Prize was awarded in 1902 to Ronald Ross, professor at the School of Tropical Medicine, the first school of its kind in the world. Orthopaedic surgery was pioneered in Liverpool by Hugh Owen Thomas, and modern medical anaesthetics by Thomas Cecil Gray. File:Oriel chambers.jpg|thumb|right|Oriel Chambers, the first 'modern' building in the world In finance, Liverpool founded the United Kingdom's first Underwriters' Association and the first Institute of Chartered Accountants in England & Wales#History|Institute of Accountants. The Western world's first financial derivatives (cotton futures) were traded on the Liverpool Cotton Exchange in the late 1700s.
In the arts, Liverpool was home to the first lending library, athenaeum society, arts centre and National Conservation Centre|public art conservation centre. Liverpool is also home to the United Kingdom's oldest surviving classical orchestra, the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra.
In 1864, Peter Ellis built the world's first iron-framed, curtain-walled office building, Oriel Chambers, the prototype of the skyscraper.
In 1897, the Lumière brothers filmed Liverpool, including what is believed to be the world's first tracking shot, taken from the Liverpool Overhead Railway – the world's first elevated electrified railway.
Liverpool inventor Frank Hornby was a visionary in toy development and manufacture and produced three of the most popular lines of toys in the twentieth century: Meccano, Hornby Model Railways and Dinky Toys.
In 1999, Liverpool was the first city outside the capital to be awarded blue plaques by English Heritage in recognition of the "significant contribution made by its sons and daughters in all walks of life."
The thousands of migrants and sailors passing through Liverpool resulted in a religious diversity that is still apparent today. This is reflected in the equally diverse collection of religious buildings.
Liverpool's wealth as a port city enabled the construction of two enormous cathedrals, both dating from the 20th century:
Liverpool Cathedral of the Church of England Cathedral was designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott and built between 1904 and 1978. It is the largest cathedral in Britain, it has one of the longest naves, largest organs and heaviest and highest peals of bells in the world. Designed and built in Gothic style, it is regarded as one of the greatest buildings to have been constructed during the 20th century and was described by former British Poet Laureate, John Betjeman, as 'one of the great buildings of the world'. It plays host to the annual Liverpool Shakespeare Festival.
The Roman Catholic Metropolitan Cathedral, on Mount Pleasant next to Liverpool Science Park was initially planned to be even larger than its Protestant rival, but of Sir Edwin Lutyens' original design, only the crypt was completed. The cathedral was eventually built to a simpler design by Sir Frederick Gibberd between 1962 and 1967, and while this is on a smaller scale than Lutyens' original design, it still manages to incorporate the largest panel of stained glass in the world. The cathedral is colloquially referred to as "Paddy's Wigwam" due to its shape. It is noted as one of the first Cathedrals to break the traditional longitudinal design.
The road running between the two cathedrals is coincidentally called Hope Street
The Church of Our Lady and Saint Nicholas (Church of England) is Liverpool's parish church. It is colloquially known as "the sailors' church", and has stood near the waterfront since 1257.
Other notable churches include the Greek Orthodox Church of St Nicholas (built in the Neo-Byzantine style), and the Gustav Adolfus Kyrka, the Swedish Seamen's Church (reminiscent of Nordic styles).
Many other denominations have churches in Liverpool.
Liverpool has had a Jewish community since the mid-18th century. The current Jewish population of Liverpool is around 3000. The city has several synagogues, of which the Princes Road Synagogue is architecturally the most notable, built in the Moorish Revival style and now Grade I listed. Princes Road is widely considered to be the most magnificent of Britain's Moorish Revival synagogues and one of the finest buildings in Liverpool. Liverpool has a thriving Jewish community with a further two orthodox Synagogues, one in the Allerton district of the city and a second in the Childwall district of the city where a significant Jewish community reside. A third orthodox Synagogue in the Greenbank Park area has recently closed, and is a listed 1930s structure. There is also a Lubavitch Chabad House and a reform Synagogue.
Liverpool's growing Hindu community has a mandir on 253 Edge Lane; the Radha Krishna Hindu Temple from the Hindu Cultural Organisation based there. The current Hindu population in Liverpool is about 1147.
The Guru Nanak Sikh Gurdwara serveds the Sikh community.
The city had one of the earliest mosques in Britain, founded in 1887 by William Abdullah Quilliam, a lawyer who had converted to Islam. This mosque has since been demolished. Currently there are three mosques in Liverpool: the largest and main one, Al-Rahma mosque, in the Toxteth area of the city and a mosque recently opened in the Mossley Hill district of the city. The third mosque was also recently opened in Toxteth and is on Granby Street. Plans have been accepted to convert the building where Quilliam's mosque once stood into a museum.
As with other major British cities, Liverpool has a large and diverse population. At the 2001 Census the recorded population of Liverpool was 441,900, while a mid-2008 estimate by the Office for National Statistics had the city's population as 434,900. Liverpool's population peaked in 1930s with 846,101 recorded in the 1931 census. Since then the city has experienced negative population growth every decade, with at its peak over 100,000 people leaving the city between 1971 and 1981. The "Liverpool city region", as defined by the Mersey Partnership, includes the Wirral, Warrington, Flintshire, Chester and other areas, and has a population of around 2 million.
As of June 2007, an estimated 91.5% of Liverpool's population was White, 2.3% Asian, 1.9% Black, 2% mixed-race and 2.3% Chinese and other.
Liverpool is home to Britain's oldest Black community, dating to at least the 1730s, and some Black Liverpudlians are able to trace their ancestors in the city back ten generations. Early Black settlers in the city included seamen, the children of traders sent to be educated, and freed slaves, since slaves entering the country after 1722 were deemed free men.
The city is also home to the oldest Chinese community in Europe; the first residents of the city's Chinatown arrived as seamen in the nineteenth century. The gateway in Chinatown, Liverpool is also the largest gateway outside of China.
The city particularly known for its large Irish population. In 1813, 10% of Liverpool's population was Welsh, leading to the city becoming known as "the capital of North Wales". Following the start of the Great Irish Potato Famine, two million Irish people migrated to Liverpool in the space of one decade, many of them subsequently departing for the United States. By 1851, more than 20% of the population of Liverpool was Irish. At the 2001 Census, 1.17% of the population were Welsh-born and 0.75% were born in the Republic of Ireland, while 0.54% were born in Northern Ireland, but many more Liverpudlians are of Welsh or Irish ancestry.
Liverpool's economy of Liverpool is one of the largest within the United Kingdom, sitting at the centre of one of the two core economies within the Lancashire. In 2006, the city's 'gross value added' was £7,626 million, providing a per capita figure of £17,489, was above the Lancashire average. After several decades of decline, Liverpool's economy has seen somewhat of a revival since the mid-1990s, with its GVA increasing 71.8% between 1995 and 2006 and employment increasing 12% between 1998 and 2006.
In common with much of the rest of the United Kingdom today, Liverpool's economy is dominated by service sector industries, both public and private. In 2007, over 60% of all employment in the city was in the public administration, education, health, banking, finance and insurance sectors. Over recent years there has also been significant growth in the knowledge economy of Liverpool in sectors such as media and life sciences.
Liverpool's rich architectural base has also helped the city become the most filmed city in the United Kingdom after London, including doubling for Chicago, London, Moscow, New York, Paris and Rome.
Tourism and leisure are important elements to the city's economy. Liverpool is the 6th most visited city in the United Kingdom and one of the 100 most visited cities in the world by international tourists. In 2008, during events marking the city's place as European Capital of Culture, overnight visitors brought £188 million into the local economy, while tourism as a whole is worth approximately £1.3bn a year to Liverpool.
The city's new cruise liner terminal, close to the Pier Head, also makes Liverpool one of the few places in the world where cruise ships are able to berth right in the centre of the city. Other recent developments in Liverpool such as the Echo Arena and Liverpool ONE have made Liverpool an important leisure centre with the latter helping to lift Liverpool into the top five retail destinations in the United Kingdom.
Historically, the economy of Liverpool was centred around the Port of Liverpool and manufacturing base, although today less than 10% of employment in the city are in these sectors. Nonetheless the city remains one of the most important ports in the United Kingdom, handling some 33 million ton of cargo in 2008. It is also home to the United Kingdom headquarters of many shipping lines including Japanese firm Nippon Yusen and Danish firm Maersk Line.
Future plans to redevelop the city's northern dock system, in a project known as "Liverpool Waters", could see £5,500 million invested in the city over the next 50 years, creating, so the projectors hope, up to 17,000 new jobs.
Sights of the city
Liverpool's building range from 16th century Tudor style, right through to modern day contemporary architecture. The majority of buildings in the city date from the late-eighteenth century onwards, the period during which the city grew into one of the foremost powers in the British Empire. There are over Listed buildings in Liverpool|2,500 listed buildings in Liverpool, of which 27 are Grade I listed and 85 are Grade II* listed. The city also has a greater number of public sculptures than any other location in the United Kingdom aside from City of Westminster|Westminster and more Georgian houses than the city of Bath. This richness of architecture has subsequently seen Liverpool described by English Heritage, as England's finest Victorian city. The value of Liverpool's architecture and design was recognised in 2004, when several areas throughout the city were declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Known as the Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City, the sites were added in recognition of the city's role in the development of International trade and dock (maritime)|docking technology.
- The Three Graces at Pierhead (see above)
- Speke Hall, one of the oldest surviving buildings is a Tudor manor house located in the south of the city, completed in 1598. One of the few remaining timber-framed Tudor houses left in Lancashire, it is noted for its Victorian interior, added in the mid-19th century.
- Other manor houses include Croxteth Hall and Woolton Hall, completed in 1702 and 1704 respectively.
- Bluecoat Chambers is the oldest building within the city centre. It is Grade I listed, built between 1717 and 1718 in the Queen Anne style, influenced in part by the work of Sir Christopher Wren and was originally the home of the Bluecoat School. Since 1908 it has been a centre for arts in Liverpool.
- The University of Liverpool's Victoria Building provided the inspiration for the term Red Brick University)
- The Adelphi Hotel, which was in that past considered to be one of the finest hotels anywhere in the world.
The English Heritage National Register of Historic Parks describes the Victorian Parks of Liverpool and surrounding towns as collectively the "most important in the country". The city of Liverpool has ten listed parks and cemeteries, including three Grade II*, more than any other English city apart from London.
Quotes about Liverpool
- "Lyrpole, alias Lyverpoole, a pavid towne, hath but a chapel... The king hath a castelet there, and the Earl of Darbe hath a stone howse there. Irisch merchants cum much thither, as to a good haven... At Lyrpole is smaul custom payed, that causith marchantes to resorte thither. Good marchandis at Lyrpole, and much Irish yarrn that Manchester men do buy there..." – John Leland (antiquary), Itinery, c. 1536–39
- "Liverpoole is one of the wonders of Britain... In a word, there is no town in England, London excepted, that can equal [it] for the fineness of the streets, and the beauty of the buildings." Daniel Defoe – A Tour through the Whole Island of Great Britain, 1721–26
- "[O]ne of the neatest, best towns I have seen in England." – John Wesley. Journal, 1755
- "I have not come here to be insulted by a set of wretches, every brick in whose infernal town is cemented with an African's blood." Actor George Frederick Cooke (1756–1812) responding to being hissed when he came on stage drunk during a visit to Liverpool.
- "That immense City which stands like another Venice upon the water...where there are riches overflowing and every thing which can delight a man who wishes to see the prosperity of a great community and a great empire... This quondam village, now fit to be the proud capital of any empire in the world, has started up like an enchanted palace even in the memory of living men." Thomas Erskine, 1st Baron Erskine, 1791
- "I have heard of the greatness of Liverpool but the reality far surpasses my expectation" –Prince Albert, speech, 1846
- "Liverpool…has become a wonder of the world. It is the New York of Europe, a world city rather than merely British provincial." – Illustrated London News, 15 May 1886
- "Liverpool is the 'pool of life' " – CG Jung, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, 1928
- "The centre is imposing, dignified and darkish, like a city in a rather gloomy Victorian novel...We had now arrived in the heart of the big city, and as usual it was almost a heart of darkness. But it looked like a big city, there was no denying that. Here, emphatically, was the English seaport second only to London. The very weight of stone emphasised that fact. And even if the sun never seems to properly rise over it, I like a big city to proclaim itself a big city at once..." – JB Priestley, English Journey, 1934
- "...if Liverpool can get into top gear again there is no limit to the city's potential. The scale and resilience of the buildings and people is amazing – it is a world city, far more so than London and Manchester. It doesn't feel like anywhere else in Lancashire: comparisons always end up overseas – Dublin, or Boston, or Hamburg." – Ian Nairn, Britain's Changing Towns, 1967
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