Durham

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Durham
County Durham
Durham Millburngate Bridge.jpg
Durham Cathedral and the River Wear
Location
Grid reference: NZ274424
Location: 54°46’34"N, 1°34’24"W
Data
Population: 29,091  (2001)
Post town: Durham
Postcode: DH1
Dialling code: 0191
Local Government
Council: County Durham
Parliamentary
constituency:
City of Durham

Durham is a city in County Durham, of which it is the county town. The city centre stands in a loop of the River Wear, dominated by the vast Cathedral, atop a precipitous cliff tumbling down to the water.

The city was founded here in 995 because of its natural defensive position, and as a resting place for the bones of St Cuthbert. The magnificent Norman cathedral was built soon after the Norman Conquest on the site of its predecessor, and Cuthbert’s bones still lie there. The Normans also built an imposing castle, and castle and cathedral served the Prince-Bishops of Durham until their palatine jurisdiction was ended in 1836.

Durham is a university town, home to the University of Durham, founded in 1832; the first university founded in England since the Middle Ages and thus one of the oldest of Britain’s universities.

The city lies to the south of Newcastle upon Tyne, Chester-le-Street and Sunderland and to the north of Darlington.

Name

Durham cathedral and castle

The name "Durham" comes from the Old English "dun", meaning hill, and the Old Norse "holme", which translates to island.[1] The Lord Bishop of Durham takes a Latin variation of the city's name in his signature, which is signed "N. Dunelm."[1] Some attribute the city's name to the legend of the Dun Cow and the milkmaid who in legend guided the monks of Lindisfarne carrying the body of Saint Cuthbert to the site of the present city in 995 AD.[2] Dun Cow Lane is said to be one of the first streets in Durham, being directly to the east of Durham Cathedral and taking its name from a depiction of the city's founding etched in masonry on the south side of the cathedral.[2]

The city has been known by a number of names throughout history. The original Norse-English Dun Holm was written Duresme by the Normans and was written in mediæval Latin as Dunelm. The modern form Durham came into use later in the city's history. The north eastern historian, Robert Surtees chronicled the name changes in his History and Antiquities of the County Palatine of Durham but states that it is an "impossibility" to tell when the city's modern name came into being.[1]

Geography

Elvet Bridge towards Old Elvet

The River Wear flows north through the city, making an incised meander which encloses the centre on three sides to form Durham's peninsula. At the base of the peninsula is the Market Place, which still hosts regular markets;[3] a permanent indoor market, Durham Indoor Market, is also situated just off the Market Place. The Market Place and surrounding streets are one of the main commercial and shopping areas of the city. From the Market Place, The Bailey leads south past Palace Green; The Bailey is almost entirely owned and occupied by the university and the cathedral.

Durham is a hilly city, claiming to be built upon the symbolic seven hills. Upon the most central and prominent position high above the Wear, the cathedral dominates the skyline. The steep riverbanks are densely wooded, adding to the picturesque beauty of the city. West of the city centre, another river, the River Browney, drains south to join the Wear to the south of the city.

There are three old roads out of the Market Place: Saddler Street heads south-east, towards Elvet Bridge, The Bailey and Prebends Bridge. Elvet Bridge leads to the Elvet area of the city, Durham Prison and the South; Prebends Bridge is smaller and provides access from The Bailey to South Durham. Heading west, Silver Street leads out of the Market Place towards Framwellgate Bridge and North Road, the other main shopping area of the city. From here, the city spreads out into the Framwelgate, Crossgate, Neville's Cross and viaduct districts, the other main shopping area of the city. Beyond the viaduct lie the outlying districts of Framwellgate Moor and Neville's Cross. Heading north from the Market Place leads to Claypath. The road curves back round to the east and beyond it lie Gilesgate, Gilesgate Moor and Dragonville.

Many of the inner city areas are now inhabited by students living in shared houses. In some roads as many as 70% of the dwellings are occupied by students.[4]

City centre

South Bailey, including parts of St John's College and St Cuthbert's Society

The historical city centre of Durham has changed little over the past 200 years. It is made up of the peninsula containing the cathedral, palace green, former administrative buildings for the palatine and Durham Castle.[5] This was a strategic defensive decision by the city's founders and gives the cathedral a striking position.[6] The reputation of the place for pilgrimage was such that Symeon of Durham stated:

"To see Durham is to see the English Sion and by doing so one may save oneself a trip to Jerusalem"[5]

Sir Walter Scott was so inspired by the view of the cathedral from South Street[7] that he wrote "Harold the Dauntless", a poem about Saxons and Vikings set in County Durham and published on 30 January 1817. The following lines from the poem are carved into a stone tablet on Prebends Bridge:

Grey towers of Durham
Yet well I love thy mixed and massive piles
Half church of God, half castle 'gainst the Scot
And long to roam those venerable aisles
With records stored of deeds long since forgot.[8]

The old commercial section of the city encompasses the peninsula on three sides, following the River Wear. The peninsula was historically surrounded by the castle wall extending from the castle keep and broken by two gatehouses to the north and west of the enclosure.[1] After extensive remodelling and "much beautification"[1] by the Victorians the walls were removed with the exception of the gatehouse which is still standing on The Bailey.

The mediæval city was made up of the cathedral, castle and administrative buildings on the peninsula.[2] The outlying areas were known as the townships and owned by the bishop,[5] the most famous of these being Gilesgate (which still contains the mediaeval St Giles Church), Claypath and Elvet.[1]

The outlying commercial section of the city, especially around the North Road area, saw much change in the 1960s during a redevelopment spearheaded by Durham City Council, however, much of the original mediaeval street plan remains intact in the area close to the cathedral and market place.[1] Most of the mediæval buildings in the commercial area of the city have disappeared apart from the House of Correction and the Chapel of Saint Andrew, both under Elvet Bridge.[1] Georgian architecture|Georgian buildings can still be found on the Bailey and Old Elvet[1] most of which make up the colleges of the University of Durham.

History

Early history

Archeological evidence suggests a history of settlement in the area since roughly 2000 BC.[1] The present city can clearly be traced back to AD 995, when a group of monks from Lindisfarne chose the strategic high peninsula as a place to settle with the body of Saint Cuthbert, that had previously lain in Chester-le-Street, founding a church there.[2]

Legend of the Dun Cow and city origins

Legend of the founding of Durham

Local legend states that the city was founded in the year 995 by divine intervention. The 12th-century chronicler, Symeon of Durham, recounts that after wandering in the north, Saint Cuthbert’s bier miraculously came to a halt at the hill of Warden Law and, despite the effort of the congregation, would not move.[5] Aldhun, Bishop of Chester-le-Street and leader of the order, decreed a holy fast of three days, accompanied by prayers to the saint.

After Eadmer’s revelation, Aldhun found that he was able to move the bier, but did not know where Dun Holm was. By chance later that day, the monks came across a milkmaid at Mount Joy (southeast of present-day Durham). She stated that she was seeking her lost dun cow, which she had last seen at Dun Holm. The monks, realising that this was a sign from the saint, followed her. They settled at a "wooded hill-island formed by a tight gorge-like meander of the River Wear." After arriving at their destination, they erected the vestiges of Durham Cathedral, which was a "modest building." Symeon states that this was the first building in the city. It does not remain today, having been wholly supplanted by the Norman structure.

Mediæval history

During the Middle Ages the city found spiritual prominence because it was the final resting place of St Cuthbert and of Bede. Before the Reformation the shrine of Saint Cuthbert, situated behind the High Altar of Durham Cathedral, was the most important religious site in England until the cult of St Thomas Becket began at Canterbury.

Despite a brief translation back to Holy Island during the Norman Invasion[9] the saint's relics remain enshrined to the present day.[10] The bones of the Venerable Bede are also entombed in the cathedral, drawing the mediæval pilgrim to the city.[2]

Durham’s geographical position has always given it an important position in the defence of England against the raids from the north.[6] The city has played an important part in the defence of the north and Durham Castle is the only Norman castle keep never to have suffered a breach.[11] The Battle of Neville's Cross which took place near the city on 17 October 1346 between the English and Scots is the most famous battle of the age.[1]

The city suffered from a number of plague outbreaks in 1544, 1589 and 1598.

Prince Bishops

Owing to divine providence of the city’s founding, the Bishop of Durham has always enjoyed the title "Bishop by Divine Providence" while all other bishops are "Bishop by Divine Right".[1] However, as the north east was so far from Westminster the bishops of Durham enjoyed extraordinary powers such as the ability to hold their own parliament,[1] raise their own armies,[2] appoint their own sheriffs and Justices, administer their own laws, levy taxes and customs duties, create fairs and markets, issue charters,[5] salvage shipwrecks, collect revenue from mines, administer the forests and mint their own coins.[1] So far reaching were the bishop’s powers that the Steward of Bishop Anthony Bek commented in 1299 that “There are two kings in England, namely the Lord King of England, wearing a crown in sign of his regality and the Lord Bishop of Durham wearing a mitre in place of a crown, in sign of his regality in the diocese of Durham”[12] All this activity was administered from the castle and buildings surrounding the Palace Green.[2] Many of the original buildings associated with these functions of the County Palatine are still to be found on the peninsula.[6]

The palatine powers possessed by the Bishops of Durham from 1071 until 1836 were such that they have been termed "Prince Bishops",[1] though that is not a title they would have recognised.[2] King Henry VIII curtailed some of the Prince-Bishop's powers and, in 1538, ordered the destruction of the shrine of Saint Cuthbert.[2] The last Prince Bishop of Durham Bishop William Van Mildert[2] credited with the foundation of Durham University.

Civil War and Commonwealth (1640 to 1660)

The city remained loyal to King Charles I throughout the English Civil War. Charles I came to Durham two times during his reign. Firstly, he came to the cathedral for a majestic service in which he was entertained by the Chapter and Bishop at great expense at the start of his reign. His second visitation to the city came towards the end of the Civil War, escaping from the city as Oliver Cromwell’s forces got closer.[13] Local legend[14] stated he escaped down the The Bailey and through Old Elvet. Another local legend has it that Cromwell stayed in a room in the present Royal County Hotel on Old Elvet during the Civil War.[13] Durham suffered greatly during the Civil War and Commonwealth. This was not due to direct assault by Cromwell but the abolition of the office of bishop in the Church of England[14] and the closure of religious institutions. The city has always relied upon the Dean and Chapter and cathedral as an economic force.

The castle suffered considerable damage and dilapidation during the Commonwealth due to the abolition of the office of bishop whose residence it was. Cromwell confiscated the castle and sold it to the Mayor of London shortly after taking it from the bishop.[13] A similar fate befell the Cathedral, it being closed in 1650 and used to incarcerate 3,000 Scottish prisoners.[13] Graffiti left by them can still be seen today etched into the interior stone.[15]

At the Restoration in 1660, John Cosin (a former Canon) was appointed bishop and set about a major restoration project. This included the commissioning of the famous elaborate woodwork in the cathedral choir, the font cover, and the Black Staircase in the castle.[16] Other renovations were carried out to both the city and cathedral by his successor Bishop Lord Nathaniel Crewe.

Eighteenth century

Durham Cathedral from the south

In 1720 it was proposed that Durham could become a sea port by digging a canal north to join the River Team, a tributary of the River Tyne near Gateshead. Nothing came of the plan, but the statue of Neptune in the Market Place was a constant reminder of Durham's maritime possibilities.[17]

The thought of ships docking at the Sands or Millburngate remained fresh in the minds of Durham businessmen. In 1759, a new proposal hoped to make the Wear navigable from Durham to Sunderland by altering the river's course, but the increasing size of ships made this impractical. This was further compounded by the fact Sunderland had grown as the north east's main port and centre for shipping.[18]

Nineteenth century

The Durham (County Palatine) Act 1836 removed the Prince Bishop’s temporal powers although he is yet regarded as the third most senior bishop in the Church of England[19] and has an automatic right to sit in the House of Lords. The Court of Claims of 1953 granted the traditional right of the bishop to accompany the sovereign at the coronation,[20] reflecting his seniority.[2]

The first census, conducted in 1801,[21] states that Durham City had a population of 7,100. The Industrial Revolution mostly passed the city by. However, the city was well known for carpet making and weaving. Although most of the mediaeval weavers who thrived in the city had left by the nineteenth century, the city was the home of Hugh MacKay Carpets’ factory, which produced the famous brands of axminster and tufted carpets until the factory was forced into administration in April 2005.[22] Other important industries were the manufacture of mustard and coal extraction.[23]

The Industrial Revolution also placed the city at the heart of the coal fields,[24] the county’s main industry until the 1970s. Practically every village around the city boasted a coal mine and, although these have since disappeared as part of the regional decline in heavy industry, the proud traditions, heritage and community spirit are still evident. The city also saw the creation of the world’s first passenger railway in 1825.[25]

The nineteenth century also saw the founding of University of Durham University, thanks to the benevolence of Bishop William Van Mildert and the Chapter in 1832. Durham Castle became the first college[23] (University College, Durham) and the Bishop moved to Auckland Castle as his residence in the county.

The first Durham Miners' Gala was held in 1871[25] and remains the largest socialist trade union event in the world.[23]

Sights of the city

The whole of the centre of Durham is designated a conservation area. The conservation area was first designated on 9 August 1968, and was extended on 25 November 1980.[26] In addition to the Cathedral and Castle, Durham contains over 630 listed buildings,[27] 569 of which are located within the city centre conservation area. Particularly notable properties include:

Grade I listed

Looking across Elvet Bridge
Cathedral: interior
  • Chorister School[28]
  • Crook Hall[29]
  • Durham Castle
  • Durham Cathedral
  • Elvet Bridge[30]
  • Framwellgate Bridge[31]
  • Kepier Hospital
  • Kingsgate Bridge[32]
  • Prebends Bridge[33]
  • St Giles Church, Durham|St Giles Church, Gilesgate[34]
  • Church of St Margaret of Antioch, Crossgate[35]
  • Church of St Mary-le-Bow (now Durham Heritage Centre)[36]
  • St John's College Chapel, formerly the Church of St Mary the Less
  • St John's College, Linton House, 1 South Bailey

Grade II* listed

  • Aykley Heads House (now Bistro 21)
  • Bishop Cosin's Hall, Palace Green
  • Cosin's Library (now part of University Library, Palace Green)
  • Crown Court, Old Elvet
  • St Cuthbert's Society, 12 South Bailey
  • St John's College, 3 South Bailey
  • St Oswald's Church
  • Railway viaduct, North Road
  • Town Hall and Guildhall, Market Place

Grade II listed

  • Durham Observatory[37]
  • The Chapel of the College of St Hild and St Bede

Durham Cathedral

Durham Cathedral from Elvet

The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, commonly referred to as Durham Cathedral was founded in its present form in 1093 and remains a centre for Christian worship today. It is generally regarded as one of the finest Romanesque cathedrals in Europe and the rib vaulting in the nave marks the beginning of Gothic ecclesiastical architecture. The cathedral has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site[38] along with nearby Durham Castle, which faces it across Palace Green, high above the River Wear.

The Cathedral houses the shrine and related treasures of Cuthbert of Lindisfarne, and these are on public view. It is also home to the head of St Oswald of Northumbria and the remains of the Venerable Bede.[38]

The mediæval shrine of St Cuthbert was extirpated at the reformation but Cuthbert's tomb itself remained. The tomb was opened on 17 May 1827 and this revealed a wealth of early Anglo-Saxon art, including wooden coffin covered in with carved iconography and devotional inscriptions in English using the runic script, and Cuthbert's pectoral cross taken from the remains of his body, the shape of which is found in the arms of the University and in other local institutions. These are now on display in the Cathedral.

Durham Castle

Durham Castle, view of the keep

Durham Castle was originally built in the eleventh century as a projection of the Norman power in the north of England, as the population of England in the north remained rebellious following the disruption of the Norman Conquest in 1066. It is an excellent example of the early motte and bailey castles favoured by the Normans.[39]

The holder of the office of Bishop of Durham was appointed by the King to exercise royal authority on his behalf and the castle was the centre of his command. It remained the Bishop's palace for the Bishops of Durham[40] until the Bishop William Van Mildert made Bishop Auckland their primary residence. A founder of Durham University, Van Mildert gave the castle as accommodation for the institution's first college, University College.[41] The castle was famed for its vast Great Hall, created by Bishop Antony Bek in the early fourteenth century. It was the largest Great Hall in Britain until Bishop Richard Foxe shortened it at the end of the Fifteenth century. However, it is still 46 feet high and about 100 feet long. The castle is still the home of University College, Durham (which is, as a result, known informally as "Castle"). It has been in continuous use for over 900 years and is the only castle in the United Kingdom never to have suffered a breach.

The University of Durham

Durham is home to the University of Durham, founded by Act of Parliament in 1832 and granted a Royal Charter in 1837. It was one of the first universities to open in England for more than 600 years, and is claimed to be England's third oldest, after the University of Oxford and University of Cambridge.

Boating

Prebends Bridge and the weir: the end of the rowing reach

The River Wear provides 2000 yards of river suitable for rowing,[42] stretching from Old Durham Beck in the east to the weir next to Durham School Boat Club's boat house in the west. This includes the 770 yard straight used for most of the Durham Regatta races and some challenging navigation through the arches of Elvet Bridge, reputed to be the narrowest row through bridge in Europe,[43] and the bends of the river round the peninsula. There is a path running alongside the river's south bank (the Cathedral side) for the entire length of the stretch available for rowing, the concrete section between Hatfield College boathouse and Elvet Bridge being completed in 1882.[44][45]

For sport rowing, a number of boat clubs operate on this stretch, Durham Amateur Rowing Club, the Durham University Boat Club, the 14 university college clubs of the Durham campus, Durham Constabulary and the school clubs – Durham School Boat Club and St Leonard's who row regularly in their own colours out of their own boat houses and Durham High School for Girls who may row out of Durham Amateur Rowing Club.

The River Wear is host to a number of regattas and head races throughout the year.

In addition to the competitive rowing and sculling of the boat clubs mentioned above, there is also a thriving hire of public pleasure boats from April to October.[46]

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 Surtees, R. (1816) History and Antiquities of the County Palatine of Durham (Classical County Histories)
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 Liddy, Christian D (2008). The Bishopric of Durham in the Late Middle Ages: Lordship, Community and the Cult of St Cuthbert. Boydell Press. ISBN 9781843833772 
  3. http://www.durhammarkets.co.uk
  4. http://www.ridingandsons.co.uk/uk/durham/city.asp
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Symeon of Durham, ‘’Libellus de exordio atque procurso istius, hoc est Dunhelmensis’’ (Tract on the origins and progress of this the church of Durham)
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Richardson, Michael (2007). Durham City: Past & Present. Breedon Books Publishing Co Ltd. ISBN 9781859835814 
  7. Sir Walter Scott by John Buchan (Cassell, 1932)
  8. {{Cite document
    |last=Scott
    |first=Walter
    |authorlink=Walter Scott
    |title=Harold the Dauntless
    |year=1817
    |publisher=James Eastburn & co
    |page=
    |pages=
    |postscript=
    }}
  9. The Lives of the Saints as contained in the "New English Missal"
  10. Durham Cathedral Illustrated Guide (available from the Cathedral Bookshop)
  11. Brown, Nicholas (1931) Durham Castle
  12. As stated in Liddy, Christian D. (2008) The Bishopric of Durham in the Late Middle Ages: Lordship, Community and the Cult of St Cuthbert.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 (1798) Noble, Mark: The Lives of the English Regicides: And Other Commissioners of the Pretended High Court of Justice, Appointed to Sit in Judgment Upon Their Sovereign, King Charles the First
  14. 14.0 14.1 The Society of Charles the King and Martyr: Newsletter (12)
  15. Durham Cathedral Guidebook (available from the Cathedral)
  16. http://www.durham.ac.uk (see University College homepage)
  17. Simpson, David. "Market Place, Silver Street and Saddler Street (Durham City)". http://www.northeastengland.talktalk.net/DurhamCityMarketPlace.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-23. 
  18. Blake, D. (1998) The North East
  19. The Canons of the Church of England
  20. The Proceedings of the Court of Claims at the Coronation of Her Majesty Elizabeth II
  21. The Census
  22. The Proceedings of the High Court of Justice 1995
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 Simpson, David (2006). Durham City. Business Education Publishers Ltd. ISBN 978-1901888508 
  24. Nixon, P: A Portrait of Durham
  25. 25.0 25.1 Frith, Francis: Durham: A Miscellany (Did You Know?)
  26. Conservation areas
  27. City of Durham – Local Plan
  28. Chorister School. Heritage Gateway. http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results_Single.aspx?uid=110134&resourceID=5. Retrieved 2009-09-26 
  29. Crook Hall. Heritage Gateway. http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results_Single.aspx?uid=110203&resourceID=5. Retrieved 2009-09-26 
  30. Elvet Bridge. Heritage Gateway. http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results_Single.aspx?uid=110443&resourceID=5. Retrieved 2009-09-26 
  31. Framwellgate Bridge. Heritage Gateway. http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results_Single.aspx?uid=110441&resourceID=5. Retrieved 2009-09-26 
  32. Kingsgate Bridge. Heritage Gateway. http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results_Single.aspx?uid=469295&resourceID=5. Retrieved 2009-09-26 
  33. Prebends Bridge. Heritage Gateway. http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results_Single.aspx?uid=110442&resourceID=5. Retrieved 2009-09-26 
  34. Church of St Giles. Heritage Gateway. http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results_Single.aspx?uid=110230&resourceID=5. Retrieved 2009-09-26 
  35. Church of St Margaret of Antioch. Heritage Gateway. http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results_Single.aspx?uid=110157&resourceID=5. Retrieved 2009-09-26 
  36. St Mary Le Bow Heritage Centre. Heritage Gateway. http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results_Single.aspx?uid=110304&resourceID=5. Retrieved 2009-09-26 
  37. "Durham Observatory". Heritage Gateway. http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results_Single.aspx?uid=110427&resourceID=5. Retrieved 3 October 2009. 
  38. 38.0 38.1 Durham Castle and Cathedral – UNESCO World Heritage Centre
  39. Durham Castle. "Britain Express". http://www.britainexpress.com/counties/durham/az/durham/castle.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  40. Durham Castle. "Sacred-destinations". http://www.sacred-destinations.com/england/durham-castle.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  41. Durham Castle. "History of Durham Castle". http://www.dur.ac.uk/university.college/history/. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  42. "Thousands enjoy city's big day". Northern Echo. 15 June 2007. http://www.thenorthernecho.co.uk/search/1475361.Thousands_enjoy_city_s_big_day/. Retrieved 27 September 2009. 
  43. "River Wear". Durham College Rowing. http://www.dur.ac.uk/college.rowing/?p=resources/wear/. Retrieved 27 September 2009. 
  44. Macfarlane-Grieve, Captain A.A., ed (1922). A History of Durham Rowing. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Andrew Ried and Company, Limited. p. 53. "This year [1882] also was constructed a new concrete path between the Hatfield Hall boathouse and Elvet Bridge. Rowing men are indebted to the Rev W A Fearon, at that time Headmaster of Durham School, for this improvement. Before this date it had been necessary for those running with the boats to cross the river at Elvet Bridge, and the proceed by way of New Elvet to the river bank at St. Oswald's Church, which made coaching from the bank a much more difficult undertaking than it is at present." 
  45. Macfarlane-Grieve, Captain A.A., ed (1922). A History of Durham Rowing. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Andrew Ried and Company, Limited. p. 189. "At a meeting held in March, 1884, the Honorary Secretary [of Durham Amateur Rowing Club] was instructed to forward a vote of thanks from the Officers and members of the Club to the Rev. W.A. Fearon, M.A., Headmaster of Durham School, for his great generosity in building the wall and constructing a footpath below Hatfield Hall and and connecting Elvet Waterside with that part of the banks known as Bow Corner. Present rowing men can hardly realise what the conditions were, both for coaching and following the long course races, before this useful walk was completed. Residents, other than those interested in rowing, have certainly reaped the benefit of this convenient and pleasent walk along the river." 
  46. "Browns Rowing Boats". Durham Prince Bishop River Cruiser. http://www.princebishoprc.co.uk/rowingboats/. Retrieved 27 September 2009. 

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