Roche Abbey

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Roche Abbey

Yorkshire
West Riding

RocheAbbeySouthYorkshire.JPG
Roche Abbey
Location
Location: 53°24’9"N, 1°11’0"W
Order: Cistercian
History
Established: 1147
Information
Condition: Ruins
Owned by: English Heritage
Website: Roche Abbey

Roche Abbey is a mediæval abbey now lying in ruins in the fields in the south of Maltby in the West Riding of Yorkshire. It is in a headwater valley (alongside Maltby Dyke known locally as Maltby Beck) and King's Wood. The abbey ruins and the wood belong today to English Heritage.

History

Foundation

The abbey was founded as an abbey of the Cistercian Order in 1147. The co-founders of Roche were Richard de Busli, likely the great-nephew[1] of the first Roger de Busli, the Norman magnate builder of Tickhill Castle, and Richard FitzTurgis.[2]

Roche Abbey

When the monks first arrived in Yorkshire from Newminster Abbey in Northumberland, they chose the most suitable side of the stream that runs through the valley, on which to build their new monastery and the first great stone buildings were raised on the north side of the beck. Twenty-five years later, at the end of the century, the Norman Gothic great church had been finished, as well as most of the other buildings. The control of the abbey was vested in the de Vesci family, lords of Rotherham, who in turn subfeuded the land to Richard FitzTurgis, lord of Wickersley (and who took Wickersley as his surname).

From the start, the Abbey of Roche, built for the so-called White Monks, as the Cistercians were known, had an almost otherworldly air. It was, after all, built at the northern end of an area once covered by Sherwood Forest, and local legend insists that Robin Hood went to Mass here. (A diocesan pilgrimage is still made today on Trinity Sunday.)[3]

One of the most valuable assets of Roche Abbey was the extraordinary quarry controlled by the Abbey itself. The stone quarried there was so sought-after that it was used in the "groined roof of King's College Chapel, Cambridge," according to Samuel Lewis.[4]

The abbey continued in the Levett family until 1377, when John Levett of Hooton Levitt sold his rights in the abbey to the London merchant Richard Barry.[5] By the time of the dissolution full control of Roche Abbey was held by Henry Clifford, 2nd Earl of Cumberland, who came in for numerous grants at the Dissolution as he was married to the niece of King Henry VIII.[6][7]

Dissolution

View of ruined transept of Roche Abbey (John Buckler, 1810)

The Roche Abbey records were lost or destroyed so there are no accounts of what went on in the abbey, other than there were 14 monks and an unknown number of novices at the time of dissolution in 1538. After the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the abbey was abandoned and fell into ruin. The walls of the north and south transepts are still impressive today though.

The local community at time of dissolution decided they had first right of claim on Roche Abbey and its possessions. A very detailed account exists citing the terrible destruction of the abbey and its valuable artefacts. Timber, lead and stone were also removed in vast quantities.[8]

The chronicle of the despoliation was written by Michael Sherbrook, a priest and rector of nearby Wickersley who watched the pillaging. "For the church was the first thing that was spoiled; then the abbot's lodging, the dormitory and refectory, with the cloister and all the buildings around, within the abbey walls," wrote Sherbrook in his eyewitness account. "For nothing was spared except the ox-houses and swinecoates and other such houses or offices that stood outside the walls – these had greater favour shown to them than the church itself."

"This was done on the instruction of Cromwell, as Fox reports in his Book of Acts and Monuments", wrote Sherbrook in his remarkable account. "It would have pitied any heart to see the tearing up of the lead, the plucking up of boards and throwing down of the rafters. And when the lead was torn off and cast down into the church and the tombs in the church were all broken (for in most abbeys various noblemen and women were buried, and in some kings, but their tombs were no more regarded than those of lesser persons, for to what end should they stand when the church over them was not spared for their cause) and all things of value were spoiled, plucked away or utterly defaced, those who cast the lead into fodders plucked up all the seats in the choir where the monks sat when they said service."

"These seats were like the seats in minsters; they were burned and the lead melted, although there was plenty of wood nearby, for the abbey stood among the woods and the rocks of stone," continued Sherbrook. "Pewter vessels were stolen away and hidden in the rocks, and it seemed that every person was intent upon filching and spoiling what he could. Even those who had been content to permit the monks' worship and do great reverence at their matins, masses and services two days previously were no less happy to pilfer, which is strange, that they could one day think it to be the house of God and the next the house of the Devil – or else they would not have been so ready to have spoiled it."[9]

Left in ruin, the land passed through many private hands until the 4th Earl of Scarbrough decided it needed revitalising to enhance his adjoining family seat at Sandbeck Park. Lord Scarborough enlisted the talents of Capability Brown. Brown was ruthless in his improvemnts: he demolished buildings, built large earth mounds and turfed the whole site.[10] Until the end of the 19th century Roche Abbey remained buried beneath Brown's work and wooded parkland. But subsequent excavation in the 1920s revealed Roche in a shadow of its fallen splendour.

The abbey today

The site is now in the care of English Heritage. The cliff path walk provides access to a view across the abbey grounds where its layout can be appreciated. Many of the buildings are low-standing but the walls of the church still stand to full height and the gothic French idealism thrust into its design and architecture is visible. Later additions to the buildings included a kitchen area and abbot's quarters, that were built on the other side of the beck. These quarters were accessed by a bridge which still stands. The monks had latrines which were over Maltby Beck so the running water took away the waste. They dammed the stream higher up to ensure fast flowing water: quite a modern facility for the 13th century.

Outside links

Commons-logo.svg
("Wikimedia Commons" has material
about Roche Abbey)

References

  1. Miscellanea Genealogica Et Heraldica: Fourth Series, W. Bruce Bannerman (ed.), Mitchell, Huges and Clark, London, 1910
  2. FitzTurgis of Roche Abbey
  3. The Marvel of the Monasteries, History of Hallam Diocese, The Catholic Diocese of Hallam, hallam-diocese.com
  4. A Topographical Dictionary of England, 1848 (Samuel Lewis)
  5. The Abbey of Roche - Houses of Cistercian Monks: A History of the County of York: West Riding - Volume pp153–156: {{{2}}} (Victoria County History)
  6. James Hobson Aveling The History of Roche Abbey, from its Foundation to its Dissolution 1870
  7. Although the Levett family had disposed of their patronage of Roche Abbey by sale to a London merchant in the fourteenth century, a lawsuit was filed in 1534 by 'William Levet v. Henry, Abbot of Roche.' A photograph of the original court roll held in the O'Quinn Law Library at the University of Houston: [1]
  8. *History of Roche Abbey
  9. Michael Sherbrook's Account of the Spoliation of Roche – Cistercians (University of Sheffield)
  10. Capability Brown work on Roche Abbey