Senghenydd was originally a rural farming community, which became industrialised with the discovery of coal in the late 19th century. With the closure of the coal pits in the second half of the twentieth century, most people in the town now commute outside the Aber Valley for employment.
Senghenydd, along with its neighbouring town Abertridwr, make up the majority of the Aber Valley, and became urbanised in the 1890s, when the Universal (1891) and Windsor collieries were sunk in the region.
The Universal Colliery, Senghenydd, suffered the first of two major gas and coal dust explosions on 24 May, 1901. Damage was sustained to both shafts, resulting in a restricted rescue attempt, and 81 of the 82 men working in the mine were killed.
On the 14 October, 1913, Senghenydd suffered from what would become the very worst mining disaster in Britain's history, when a second gas explosion occurred at the Universal Colliery, resulting in the loss of 439 lives. But many of the surviving miners went back to help their workmen who were either trapped or buried alive after the worst mining disaster in the UK.
Universal Colliery was finally closed on Friday 30 March 1928 (except for a ventilation shaft) with the loss of 2500 jobs 
Senghenydd is served by the B4263 road to Caerphilly, and connects to Nelson by roads over Mynydd Eglwysilan to the north.
- Rugby: Senghenydd RFC
- Pictures of Senghenydd and the area on Geograph.co.uk
- Welsh Coal Mines - research the local pit histories
- www.mw0gkx.co.uk/genint/Senghenydd.html: About the town growth and disasters
- The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales. John Davies, Nigel Jenkins, Menna Baines and Peredur Lynch (2008) page2 ISBN 978-0-7083-1953-6
- Welsh Coal Mines website
- The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales. John Davies, Nigel Jenkins, Menna Baines and Peredur Lynch (2008) page809 ISBN 978-0-7083-1953-6