The Lochmaben Stone is a megalith standing in a field, nearly a mile west of the Sark mouth on the Solway Firth, three hundred yards or so above high water mark on the farm of Old Graitney in Dumfriesshire. The area is also known as Stormont. Together with a smaller stone it is all that is left of a stone circle dating back to around 3000BC.
|Location maps:||54°59’2"N, 3°4’34"W|
The principal stone or megalith is an erratic, 7 feet high and 18 feet in girth and weighs approximately ten tons. It is composed of weathered granite, exposed to severe glacial action.
The stone has, in the history of the Middle Shires, an unsurpassed extent of history attached to it.
- 1 Name
- 2 Archaeology
- 3 The border line and the Lochmaben Stone
- 4 Recent history
- 5 The Battle of Sark or Lochmaben Stone
- 6 Miscellaneous notes
- 7 Outside links
- 8 References
The Lochmaben Stone has had a wide range of names attached to it over the last few millennia or so. Lochmabonstone, Stormont, and Old Graitney stone are amongst the most recent. In 1398 the name is 'Clochmabenstane', in 1409 and 1472 the name 'Loumabanestane' is recorded, with 'Lowmabanstane' used in 1485 and then 'Loughmabanestane' in 1494.
The element 'Mabon' is common to all of the variants and this strongly confirms this association, as well as helping with the identification of this site with the Roman site of Locus Maponi, as listed in the Ravenna Cosmography.
The element Cloch element is found with the 1398 record 'Clockmabanstane' which suggests a Gaelic element, as in the modern Gaelic 'clach', meaning stone, or this might be a fourteenth century rationalistion.
The first edition Ordnance Survey six-inch map (1843–1882) refers to it as " Druidical circle (Remains of)", which the Ordnance Survey Name Book states as being formerly composed of nine upright stones placed in an oval of about half an acre. Only two of these stones are visible above the surface of the ground, one being the Lochmaben Stone.
The second stone stands a yard high by 4 feet in diameter in a less conspicuous position in the nearby hedge to the northeast of the larger stone. The 1845 'New Statistical Account' also relates that a ring of large stones once stood here, enclosing an area of around half an acre, most of which were removed shortly before that date to facilitate ploughing of the site.
In 1982 the stone fell over, and excavations prior to its re-erection revealed that it had been set into a shallow pit. No artefacts were recovered. However, a sample of mixed Oak and Hazel charcoal taken from the lower fill of the stone-pit yielded a radiocarbon date of approximately 3275 BC according to Aubrey Burl.
The Ravenna Cosmography, compiled in Italy in the seventh century, lists all the towns and road-stations throughout the Roman Empire and includes a 'Locus Maponi' which has been tentatively identified with the Lochmaben stone site.
The border line and the Lochmaben Stone
The Lochmaben Stone was a well known, well recognised and easily located 'marker' on the Scottish Marches and as such it performed a number of functions before the peace brought by the Union of the Crowns, such as arrangements for truces, exchange of prisoners, etc.
Raiding parties met here before launching expeditions into England and Scottish armies assembled here before major incursions or defence operations took place. It may well have been a tribal assembly point. An army was ordered to assemble here as late as 6 February 1557.
Exchange of prisoners
In 1398 an exchange of prisoners took place when English and Scots representatives, the Dukes of Rothesay and Lancaster met at the Lochmaben Stone. The prisoners were released without ransoms and any that had already been paid were to be returned.
The Commissioners and the Wardens of the Western Marches
Its use by the Marcher Lords or Wardens suggests that the Scots regarded the Lochmaben stone as being the southernmost limit of the Scottish realm. In 1398 an indenture was made at 'Clochmabenstane' for the men of Tyndale and Redesdale to meet from Whitsunday to Michaelmas at Kershope Bridge. The Commissioners not only met here, but "gave bail for their good behaviour to one another."
In 1473, the Scottish and English Ambassadors met to agree that more frequent meetings of the marcher Wardens were to be held at the six recognised sites on the marches. These were 'Newbyggynfurde, Redaneburn, Gammyllispethe, Belle, Loumabanestane and Kershopebrig and the meetings were to be held at successive venues. On the 26th. March 1494 the commissioners of both countries met at the Lochmaben Stone to finally settle the long running dispute over the 'Fish Garth' across the River Esk.
In the 1800s the tenant of Old Graitney farm decided to clear his land of the three remaining stones which ruined his field's appearance and got in the way of his machinery. He set his farm hands to work digging deep pits for the burial of the stones. One had been completely buried and another partially sunken when the proprietor, Lord Mansfield, arrived at the scene and stopped further operations. The stone was still used as a gathering place for the locality into comparatively recent times.
A local tradition suggests that the stone was moved by a farm worker with an excavator, the intention being to locate any 'treasure' beneath. The local primary school attended an official re-erection ceremony which was covered by the local paper, the Dumfries and Galloway Standard 22 September 1995.
The Battle of Sark or Lochmaben Stone
The Auchinleck Chronicle records that on 23 October 1448 an army under the command of Hugh Douglas, Earl of Ormonde, and Sir John Wallace of Craigie won a resounding victory over the invading forces of the younger Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland. There is nothing to mark the site of the battle ground. Three thousand of Percy's men were slain or drowned in flight. Many prisoners were taken. Estimated Scots losses range from a low of 26 to a high of 600, the most serious of whom was Sir John Wallace of Craigie, Sheriff of Ayr, who was mortally wounded, dying some time after the battle.
The Old Graitney Boat Burial
At NY 31 66 a Viking boat-shaped barrow or mound existed. It was levelled around the year 1851, but no burials or Viking artefacts are recorded as having been found.
Old Graitney – The 'Auld House'
This tower-house was built by the Johnstones in 1535 and burnt by the Maxwells in 1585. Locally a tower is said to have stood 180 m south of the Old Graitney Farmhouse although no traces are visible on the ground.
This site at NY316660 is recorded as having been used by smugglers. The title of Viscount Stormont is a title in the Peerage of Scotland created in 1621 by James VI for Sir David Murray. It is a subsidiary tile of the Earl of Mansfield and Mansfield. The family held land in this area and no doubt some connection exists between the title and the area.
The upper stone of a rotary quern was found about 1976 when ploughing some 300 yards south of Old Graitney farmhouse, where it is still held by the finder, Mr S Smith. Slightly oval in shape it measures about a foot in maximum diameter and is made of granite or a similar rock; there are both central and side-holes.
A local legend associates the Lochmaben Stone with the stone from which King Arthur pulled his sword.
- Mack, James Logan (1926). The Border Line. Pub. Oliver & Boyd.
- The RCAHMS Canmore Database
- Maxwell, Sir Herbert (1896). A History of Dumfries and Galloway. Edinburgh : William Blackwood & Sons. p. 132.
- Ruggles, Clive (2003). Records in Stone: Papers in Memory of Alexander Thom. Cambridge University Press. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-521-53130-6. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=oZ3JGYd1kJoC&pg=PA184&dq=Lochmaben+Stone&hl=en&sa=X&ei=1j4pT6atNcfa8AO2quHfAw&ved=0CD8Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Lochmaben%20Stone&f=false.
- Richmond, I.A. (1958). Ancient geographical sources for Britain north of Cheviot. Roman and Native in North Britain. Pub. Edinburgh. P.149.
- Sharp, Mick (1997). Holy Places of Celtic Britain. Blandford. ISBN 1-85079-315-8. P. 45.
- Maxwell, Sir Herbert (1896). A History of Dumfries and Galloway. Edinburgh : William Blackwood & Sons. p. 135.
- Rae, T. I. (1966). Administration of the Scottish Frontier, 1513 – 1603. P.50.
- Auchinleck Chronicle. A Short Chronicle of the Reign of James the Second King of Scots.
- MacFarlane, W. (1906–8). Geographical collections relating to Scotland.
- Graham, A. & Truckell, A.E. (1977). Old Harbours in the Solway Firth Trans. Dumf. Gall. Hist. Antiq. Soc. 3rd., V.52.
- The King Arthur connection.