The main entrance to the hillfort
|Owned by:||Ernest Cook Trust|
Burrough Hill is an Iron Age hillfort in Leicestershire, near Burrough on the Hill, seven miles south of Melton Mowbray. Situated on a promontory about 689 feet above sea level, the site commands views over the surrounding countryside for miles around.
There has been human activity in the area since at least the Mesolithic, and the hillfort was founded in the early Iron Age. In the Middle Ages, after the hillfort was abandoned, the hill was used as farmland. This ended in the 17th century when the parish the hill was in was enclosed. Traces of ridge and furrow show where the mediæval fields were ploughed. Since the 1930s the site has been the subject of archaeological investigations and renewed excavations under the auspices of the University of Leicester began in 2010. Part of Burrough Hill Country Park and open to the public, the hillfort is protected as a Scheduled Ancient Monument.
According to archaeologist Dr Jeremy Taylor "sites like Burrough Hill were the nearest thing we have to a town before places like Leicester ever existed".
Location and layout
The hillfort stands on an ironstone promontory around 650 feet above sea level, seven miles south of the modern settlement of Melton Mowbray. shaped during prehistoric ice ages. The bedrock is marlstone, limestone containing iron. Although the rock contains iron, the levels are low and little attempt was made to extract it. The iron gives the limestone a distinctive hue, ranging from orange to light brown as the proportion of iron changes across the site. Surrounded by a single ditch and rampart, the hillfort is trapezoidal in shape and covers an area of around 12 acres. The ramparts, constructed from stone and earth, stand ten feet above the interior of the hillfort and would originally have been higher. There is also a counterscarp five to six yards beyond the northern rampart.
The hillfort was entered from the south-east through a gap in the ramparts turned inwards. The gatepassage extends for 49 yards into the fort and is flanked by six-foot high banks, although they were probably much higher when they were originally built. The passage would have been faced with stone. A chamber, possibly a guardhouse, 5 yards by 10 yards was built into the banks. Timber posts indicate there may have been a wooden gallery above the entrance, allowing people to cross the ramparts next to the entrance. The design, with an extended gatepassage and an adjacent room, has parallels with hillforts to the north such as Eddisbury in Cheshire and The Wrekin in Shropshire. An extended entrance, as seen at Burrough Hill, was a common theme in hillfort design and served to increase the time it took to enter. There may have been a second entrance in the south-west of the site. Later activity on the site has caused breaks in the ramparts, but the remains generally survive well.
A magnetometry survey of the interior of the hillfort in 2010 revealed over 400 circular anomalies of uncertain purpose (maculae) distributed across the fort, although there were fewer around the south-east. Their size and number, as well as finds from similar features in previous excavations, suggests they may have been storage pits. The survey also discovered curved features that probably indicate the presence of roundhouses. They were grouped close to the ramparts on the north, west, and south sides. There are signs of post-mediæval quarrying outside the main entrance to the fort. Outside the hillfort were more curved anomalies, suggesting roundhouses in a settlement beyond the ramparts. It was surrounded by a ditch.
Burrough Hill is the best example of a univallate hillfort (surrounded by a single ditch and rampart) in Leicestershire. Finds from the site date from as early as the Mesolithic, indicating the area has seen human activity over an extended period of time, however it is likely that a settlement was only created in the Late Bronze or Early Iron Age. The subsequent development of the hillfort is unclear. As yet it is uncertain whether the settlement outside the hillfort was contemporary with the occupation of the hillfort or represent a different phase of activity on the site. The period of most intensive activity at Burrough Hill was between 100 BC and AD 50. Artefacts indicate that the settlement had a wide range of trade links. Towards the end of the Iron Age, the fort gradually degraded. A layer of refuse bears testament to this and contains Roman pottery. It is likely the site was still in use between the 1st and 4th centuries AD, at which point Britain was under Roman control. During the Roman period, habitation was focused in the northern part of the fort.
In the Midlde Ages, the interior of the hillfort along with the surrounding area was farmed; traces of ridge and furrow still mark where the fields were ploughed. As well as being used agriculturally, locals used the hill to hold a fair. According to 16th-century antiquarian John Leland, on Whit Mondays the hill was used for social events such as dancing and games. In his Itinerary, Leland noted that curiosity prompted him to excavate some of the earthworks near the entrance and his account may be regarded as the earliest archaeological field report. The hill was used as farmland until the 17th century when the parish was enclosed. In the 19th century, Burrough Hill was used by the Melton Hunt for steeple-chasing.
The first professional archaeological excavation on Burrough Hill was in 1935; it was not well recorded, and the exact location of the trench is not certain, but it covered some 39 square yards and was somewhere outside the east of the hillfort. Finds included animal bones and twelve pieces of Iron Age and Roman pottery. Excavations were next undertaken in 1960, by which time new technology meant non-invasive techniques such as magnetometery could be used alongside digging. About half the fort was surveyed using a proton magnetometer. Several features identified through this geophysical survey were partially excavated; they turned out to be storage pits and produced artefacts such as animal bones, quern stones for grinding, and various shards of Iron Age and Roman pottery. The entrance was also examined, and excavations revealed a cobbled surface leading into the fort as well as what may have been a guardhouse. More animal bone was found here as well as Iron Age and Roman pottery, and a brooch from the La Tène culture.
Further excavations were undertaken in 1967 with the intention of investigating pit-like features identified in the 1960 magnetometry survey. Finds from the twelve pits consisted of Iron Age and Roman pottery, animal bones, and charcoal. The layer of topsoil above the pits produced Roman pottery and some Roman coins from the 3rd and 4th centuries. The 1960 survey again guided the excavations of 1970 and 1971. Despite multiple excavations, the results have generally been poorly published and as a result the hillfort remains little understood.
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about Burrough Hill)
- The Burrough Hill Research and Fieldwork Training Project: A ULAS and University of Leicester Excavation Initiative
- Burrough Hill Country Park
- The Ernest Cook Trust
- Human bones found at dig by Leicester school students, BBC News, 12 July 2011, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-leicestershire-14122068, retrieved 12 July 2011
- Thomas & Taylor 2011, p. 2
- Burrough Hill: Archaeology, Geology and History, Leicestershire County Council, 17 September 2010, http://www.leics.gov.uk/index/environment/countryside/countryparks/burrough/country_parks_burrough_hill_history.htm, retrieved 11 July 2011
- National Monuments Record: No. 321391 – Burrough Hill
- Thomas & Taylor 2011, p. 26
- Dyer 2008, p. 28
- Thomas & Taylor 2011, pp. 5–6
- Thomas & Taylor 2011, pp. 6–7
- Thomas & Taylor 2011, p. 2, citing Liddle 1982
- Thomas & Taylor 2011, p. 2, citing Clay 2001
- Thomas, John; Taylor, Jeremy (2011), Burrough Hill Iron Age Hillfort: The Burrough Hill Research and Fieldwork Training Project – A ULAS and University of Leicester Excavation Initiative, University of Leicester, http://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/archaeology/research/projects/burrough-hill-iron-age-hillfort, retrieved 13 July 2011
- Thomas & Taylor 2011, p. 27
- Leland & Chandler 1993, pp. xxi, 275
- Clay, P. J. (2001), "Leicestershire and Rutland in the First Millennium BC", Transactions of the Leicestershire Archaeological and Historical Society 75: 1–19
- Dyer, James (2008), Hillforts of England and Wales, Osprey, ISBN 978-0-7478-0180-1
- John Leland (antiquary); Chandler, John (1993), John Leland's Itinerary: Travels in Tudor England, Sutton, ISBN 978-0-7509-1751-3
- Liddle, P (1982), Leicestershire Archaeology: the present state of knowledge. Part 1 to the end of the Roman Period., Leicestershire Museums Art Galleries and Records Service
- Payne, Andrew; Corney, Mark; Cunliffe, Barry (2007), The Wessex Hillforts Project: Extensive Survey of Hillfort Interiors in Central Southern England, English Heritage, ISBN 978-1-873592-85-4, http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/server/show/ConWebDoc.10744
- Sharples, Niall M (1991), English Heritage Book of Maiden Castle, London: B. T. Batsford, ISBN 0-7134-6083-0
- Taylor, Jeremy; Thomas, John (2011) (PDF), Excavations at Burrough Hill, Burrough-on-the-Hill, Leicestershire: Interim Report 2010, University of Leicester, http://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/archaeology/research/Burrough%20Hill%202010%20report.pdf
- Thawley, J. H. (1973), "Burrough Hill", Transactions of the Leicestershire Archaeological and Historical Society 47: 67