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Roman Column outside York Minster
Statue of Constantine the Great outside York Minster

Eboracum, also recorded as Eburacum was a fort and later a city in the Roman province of Britannia. It obtained the status of a 'colonia' – as if legally an outpost of the City of Rome: in its prime Eboracum was the largest town in northern Britain and a provincial capital.

The site remained occupied after the decline of the Western Roman Empire and ultimately developed into the present-day city York, at the heart of Yorkshire.

Two Roman emperors died in Eboracum: Septimius Severus in AD 211, and Constantius Chlorus in AD 306.


The first known recorded mention of Eboracum by name is dated around AD 95–104 and it is recorded in the genitive form, Eburaci, on a wooden stylus tablet from the Roman fortress of Vindolanda in modern Northumberland.[1] During the Roman period, the name was written both Eboracum and Eburacum (in nominative form).[1]

The name of the city comes from the Common Brittonic *Eburākon, which means "yew tree place".[2] The name was then Latinized by replacing the Celtic neuter nominative ending -on by its Latin equivalent -um, a common use noted also in Gaul and Lusitania (Ebora Liberalitas Julia).

Peter Schrijver has instead counter-argued that "eburos did not mean yew tree" and that the derivation from Latin ebur instead refers to boar's tusks.[3]

After the Roman period the city is recorded in Old Welsh as 'Evrawg' (and in Modern Welsh is 'Efrog'). The modern English name derives from the native Welsh, by way of a forced English rendering as Eoforwic (which means 'Wild-Boar-Town') and the Norse Jorvik.


The Roman conquest of Britain began in AD 43, but advance beyond the Humber did not take place until the early AD 70s. This was because the people in the area, the Brigantes, became a Roman client state, and conquest was only necessary when the Brigantian chiefs became more hostile to Rome: teh Roman general Quintus Petillius Cerialis led the Ninth Legion, the Legio VIIII Hispana, north from Lincoln.[4]

Eboracum was founded in AD 71 when Cerialis and the Ninth Legion constructed a military fortress (castra) on flat ground above the River Ouse near its junction with the River Foss. In the same year, Cerialis was appointed Governor of Britain.[5]

A town grew up around the fortress. Growth was rapid; streets were laid out, public buildings were erected and private houses spread out over terraces on the steep slopes above the river.


From its foundation the Roman fort of Eboracum was aligned on a north-east/south-east bearing on the north bank of the River Ouse. It measured 1,600 × 1,360 pedes monetales (1,555 feet × 1,322 feet)[6] and covered an area of fifty acres.[6] The standard set of streets running through the castra is assumed, although some evidence exists for the via praetoria, via decumana and via sagularis.[6] Much of the modern understanding of the fortress defences has come from extensive excavations undertaken by L. P. Wenham.[7][8][9]

The layout of the fortress also followed the standard for a legionary fortress, with wooden buildings inside a square defensive boundary.[10] These defences, originally consisting of turf ramparts on a green wood foundation, were built by the Ninth Legion between AD 71 and 74. Later these were replaced by a clay mound with a turf front on a new oak foundation, and eventually, wooden battlements were added, which were then replaced by limestone walls and towers.[11] The original wooden camp was refurbished by Agricola in 81, before being completely rebuilt in stone between 107 and 108. The fortress was garrisoned soon afterwards by the Sixth Legion (Legio VI Victrix), possibly as soon as 118.

Multiple phases of restructuring and rebuilding within the fortress are recorded. Rebuilding in stone began in the early second century AD under Trajan, but may have taken as long as the start of the reign of Septimius Severus to be completed; a period of over 100 years.[12] Estimates suggest that over 48,000 m3 of stone were required,[12] largely consisting of Magnesian Limestone from the quarries near the Roman settlement of Calcaria (Tadcaster).[13]

Visiting emperors

A bust of Constantine I from AD 313 to 324; Musei Capitolini, Rome

There is evidence that the Emperor Hadrian visited in 122 on his way north to plan his great walled frontier. He either brought, or sent earlier, the Sixth Legion to replace the existing garrison. The Emperor Septimius Severus visited Eboracum in 208[14] and made it his base for campaigning in Caledonia. (The fortress wall was probably reconstructed during his stay and at the east angle it is possible to see this work standing almost to full height.) The Imperial court was based in York until at least 211, when Severus died and was succeeded by his sons, Caracalla and Geta.[14] A biographer, Cassius Dio, described a scene in which the Emperor utters the final words to his two sons on his death bed: "Agree with each other, make the soldiers rich, and ignore everyone else."[15] Severus was cremated in Eboracum shortly after his death.[14] Dio described the ceremony: "His body arrayed in military garb was placed upon a pyre, and as a mark of honour the soldiers and his sons ran about it and as for the soldier's gifts, those who had things at hand to offer them put them upon it and his sons applied the fire."[14] (The location of the cremation was not recorded. A hill to the west of modern York, known as Severus Hill, is associated by some antiquarians as the site where this cremation took place,[16] but no archaeological investigation has corroborated this claim.)

In the later 3rd century, the western Empire experienced political and economic turmoil and Britain was for some time ruled by usurpers independent of Rome. It was after crushing the last of these that Caesar Constantius I came to Eboracum and, in 306, became the second Emperor to die there. His son Constantine was instantly proclaimed as successor by the troops based in the fortress. Although it took Constantine eighteen years to become sole ruler of the Empire, he may have retained an interest in Eboracum and the reconstruction of the south-west front of the fortress with polygonally-fronted interval towers and the two great corner towers, one of which (the Multangular Tower) still survives, is probably his work. In the city, Constantine's reign was a time of prosperity and a number of extensive stone town houses of the period have been excavated.


For the Romans, Eboracum was the major military base in the north of Britain and, following the 3rd-century division of the province of Britannia, the capital of northern Britain, Britannia Inferior. By 237 Eboracum had been made a 'colonia': the highest legal status a Roman city could attain. There were only four coloniae in Britain and the others were founded for retired soldiers.[17] This mark of Imperial favour was probably a recognition of Eboracum as the largest town in the north and the capital of Britannia Inferior. At around the same time Eboracum became self-governing, with a council made up of rich locals, including merchants and veteran soldiers.[18] In 296 Britannia Inferior was divided into two provinces of equal status with Eboracum becoming the provincial capital of Britannia Secunda.


Statue of Mars from Blossom Street

As a busy port and a provincial capital Eboracum was a cosmopolitan city with residents from throughout the Roman Empire.[19]


Substantial evidence for the use of cereal crops and animal husbandry can be found in Eboracum.[20] A first-century warehouse fire from Coney Street, on the North bank of the Ouse and outside the fortress, showed that spelt wheat was the most common cereal grain used at that time, followed by barley.[20] Cattle, sheep/goat and pig are the major sources of meat.[20] Hunting scenes, as shown through Romano-British "hunt cups",[21] suggest hunting was a popular pastime and that diet would be supplemented through the hunting of hare, deer and boar. A variety of food preparation vessels (mortaria) have been excavated from the city[21] and large millstones used in the processing of cereals have been found in rural sites outside the city at Heslington and Stamford Bridge.[20]

In terms of the ceremonial use of food; dining scenes are used on tombstones to represent an aspirational image of the deceased in the afterlife, reclining on a couch and being served food and wine.[22] The tombstones of Julia Velva, Mantinia Maercia and Aelia Aeliana each depict a dining scene.[22] Additionally, several inhumation burials from Trentholme Drive contained hen's eggs placed in ceramic urns as grave goods for the deceased.[23]


Mithraic tauroctony scene from Micklegate

A range of evidence of Roman religious beliefs]] among the people of Eboracum have been found including altars to Mars, Hercules, Jupiter and Fortune. In terms of number of references, the most popular deities were the spiritual representation (genius) of Eboracum and the Mother Goddess.[24] There is also evidence of local and regional deities. Evidence showing the worship of eastern deities has also been found during excavations in York. For example, evidence of the Mithras cult, which was popular among the military, has been found including a sculpture showing Mithras slaying a bull and a dedication to Arimanius, the god of evil in the Mithraic tradition.[25] The Mithraic relief located in Micklegate[26] suggests the location of a temple to Mithras right in the heart of the Colonia.[27] Another example is the dedication of a temple to Serapis a Hellenistic-Egyptian God by the Commander of the Sixth Legion, Claudius Hieronymianus.[28] Other known deities from the city include: Tethys,[29] Veteris,[29] Venus,[30]Silvanus,[31] Toutatis, Chnoubis and the Imperial Numen.

There was also a Christian community in Eboracum although it is unknown when this was first formed and in archaeological terms there is virtually no record of it. The first evidence of this community is a document noting the attendance of Bishop Eborius of Eboracum at the Council of Arles (314).[32] The Episcopal see at Eboracum was called Eboracensis in Latin and Bishops from the See also attended the First Council of Nicaea in 325, the Council of Serdica, and the Council of Ariminum.[33] The name is preserved in the abbreviated form Ebor as the official name of the Archbishop of York.


The military presence at Eboracum was the driving force behind early developments in its economy. In these early stages, Eboracum operated as a command economy with workshops growing up outside the fortress to supply the needs of the 5,000 troops garrisoned there. Production included military pottery until the mid-3rd century, military tile kilns have been found in the Aldwark-Peasholme Green area, glassworking at Coppergate, metalworks and leatherworks producing military equipment in Tanner Row.[17]

In the Roman period, Eboracum was the major manufacturing centre for Whitby Jet. Known as gagates in Latin, it was used from the early 3rd century as material for jewellery[34] and was exported from here throughout Britain and into Europe.[35] Examples found in York take the form of rings, bracelets, necklaces, and pendants depicting married couples and the Medusa.[34] There are fewer than 25 jet pendants in the Roman world,[36] of which six are known from Eboracum. These are housed in the Yorkshire Museum.


[[File:Yorkshire Museum - skeleton of a wealthy woman 1.jpg|right|thumb|200px|During construction of the York to Scarborough Railway Bridge in 1901, workmen discovered a large stone coffin, close to the River Ouse. Inside was a skeleton, accompanied by an array of unusual and expensive objects. This chance find represents one of the most significant discoveries ever made from Roman York.

The true paths of all original Roman roads leading out of Eboracum are not known,[37] although eleven have been suggested.[37] The known roads include Dere Street leading North-West from the city through Clifton towards the site of Cataractonium (modern Catterick), Cade's Road Towards Petuaria (modern Brough), and Ermine Street towards Lindum (modern Lincoln).[37] A road bypassing the south wall of the fortress, between the fortress and the River Ouse has not been formally planned, although its path is conjectured to run beneath the York Museum Gardens.[37]


The River Ouse and River Foss provided important access points for the importation of heavy goods. The existence of two possible wharves on the east bank of the River Foss[38] support this idea. A large deposit of grain, in a timber structure beneath modern-day Coney Street, on the north-east bank of the River Ouse[39] suggests the existence of storehouses for moving goods via the river.

Late Roman York

The decline of Roman Britain in early fifth century AD led to significant social and economic changes all over Britain. Whilst the latest datable inscription referencing Eboracum dates from AD 237, the continuation of the settlement after this time is certain.[12] Building work in the city continued in the fourth century under Constantine and later Count Theodosius.[12] The locally produced Crambeck Ware pottery[40] arrives in Eboracum in the fourth century—the most famous form being intricately decorated buff-yellow "parchment ware" painted with bright shades of red. The effect of Constantine's religious policy allowed the greater development of Christianity in Roman Britain—a bishop of York named "Eborius" is attested here and several artifacts decorated with chi-rho symbols are known.[12] Additionally, a small bone plaque from an inhumation grave bore the phrase SOROR AVE VIVAS IN DEO ("Hail sister may you live in God").[41]

Changes in the layout of both the fort and colonia occurred in the late fourth century AD, suggested as representing a social change in the domestic lives of the military garrison here whereby they might have lived in smaller family groups with wives, children or other civilians.[12]

Rediscovery of Roman York

The rediscovery and modern understanding of Eboracum began in the 17th century. Several prominent figures have been involved in this process. Martin Lister was the first to recognise that the Multangular Tower was Roman in date in a 1683 paper with the Royal Society.[42] John Horsley's 1732 Britannia Romana, or "The Roman Antiquities of Britain", included a chapter on Roman York and at least partly informed Francis Drake's 1736 Eboracum[43]—the first book of its kind on Roman York. Drake also published accounts in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.[38]

The Rev. Charles Wellbeloved was one of the founders of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society and a curator of the antiquities in the Yorkshire Museum until his death in 1858. He published a systematic account of Roman York titled Eboracum or York under the Romans in 1842,[38] including first hand records of discoveries during excavations in 1835.[38] William Hargrove brought many new discoveries to the attention of the public through published articles in his newspaper the Herald and the Courant[38] and published a series of guides with references to casual finds.

The first large-scale excavations were undertaken by S. Miller from the University of Glasgow in the 1920s[38] with a focus on the defences.

Archaeological remains

Substantial physical remains have been excavated in York in the last two centuries[44] including the city walls, the legionary bath-house and headquarters building, civilian houses, workshops, storehouses and cemeteries.

Visible remains

  • Remains of the Roman Basilica building, at the north side of the Principia are visible in the undercroft of York Minster. A column found during excavations and a modern statue of Constantine the Great are located outside.[45]
  • The multangular tower of York city walls is a multi-period structure based on the south-west corner tower of the Roman Legionary Fortress. It is within the York Museum Gardens.
  • The Roman Bath pub and museum (St Sampson's Square) displays remains of the military bath-house.[46]
  • A fragment of foundations of the western curtain wall is visible through a glass floor in a cafe near Bootham bar.[47]
  • A large number of Roman finds are now housed in the Yorkshire Museum.[48] The York Museum Gardens have Roman sarcophagi on open display.


Outside links

("Wikimedia Commons" has material
about Eboracum)


  1. 1.0 1.1 Hall 1996, p. 13
  2. Hall 1996, p. 27; the wholly fictitious king Ebraucus (derived from the Old Welsh spelling of the place name, (Cair) Ebrauc), ruling in the days of biblical King David, was an invention of Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae.
  3. Peter Schrijver (2015). "The meaning of Celtic *eburos". Mélanges en l'honneur de Pierre-Yves Lambert. pp. 65–76. 
  4. Willis 1988, pp. 16–17
  5. Hall 1996, pp. 26–28
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Ottaway 2004, pp. 34–37
  7. Wenham, L. P. (1961). "Excavations and discoveries adjoining the south-west wall of the Roman legionary fortress in Feasegate, York, 1955–57". Yorkshire Archaeological Journal 40: 329–50. 
  8. Wenham, L. P. (1962). "Excavations and discoveries within the Legionary Fortress in Davygate, York, 1955–58". Yorkshire Archaeological Journal 40: 507–87. 
  9. Wenham, L. P. 1965 'The South-West defences of the Fortress of Eboracum' in Jarrett, M. G. and Dobson, B. (eds.) Britain and Rome. pp. 1–26
  10. Hall 1996, pp. 27–28
  11. Willis 1988, pp. 19–22
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 Ottaway 2004, pp. 67–69
  13. National Monuments Record: No. 54930 – Calcaria Roman Town
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Ottaway 2004, pp. 79–81
  15. Dio, Cassius. Historia Romana 76.15.2
  16. Baines 1823, p. 15
  17. 17.0 17.1 Hall 1996, p. 31
  18. Hartley 1985, p. 12
  19. Hartley 1985, p. 14
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 Ottaway 2013, pp. 137–140
  21. 21.0 21.1 Monaghan, J. 1993. Roman Pottery from the Fortress (Archaeology of York 16/7). York: York Archaeological Trust
  22. 22.0 22.1 Stewart, P (2009). "Totenmahl reliefs in the northern provinces: a case-study in imperial sculpture". Journal of Roman Archaeology 22: 253–274. doi:10.1017/s1047759400020699. 
  23. RCHME 1962, p. 106
  24. RCHME 1962, p. 118a
  25. Hall 1996, pp. 97-101
  26. RCHME 1962, p. 55
  27. Ottaway 2004, pp. 114–115
  28. Hartley 1985, p. 25
  29. 29.0 29.1 RCHME 1962, pp. 113a–b
  30. RCHME 1962, p. 120b
  31. RCHME 1962, p. 116a
  32. Hall 1996, pp. 97–101
  33. "Ancient See of York". New Advent. 2007. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15733b.htm. 
  34. 34.0 34.1 Allason-Jones 1996
  35. Ottaway 2004, p. 107
  36. Allason-Jones 1996, p. 25
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 37.3 RCHME 1962, pp. 1–4
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 38.3 38.4 38.5 RCHME 1962, pp. 64–65
  39. Ottaway 2004, p. 54
  40. Potsherd (1996). "Crambeck Ware Pottery". http://potsherd.net/atlas/Ware/CRAM. 
  41. York Museums Trust (2006). "Ivory Bangle Lady". http://www.yorkshiremuseum.org.uk/Page/ViewCollection.aspx?CollectionId=26. 
  42. Lidster, M. 1683. 'Some Observations upon the Ruins of a Roman Wall and Multangular-Tower at York'. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Vol 13. pp. 238–242.
  43. RCHME 1962, pp. xxxix–xli
  44. RCHME 1962, pp. xvii-xix
  45. Thomas, Brittany (2016). "Imperial Statues and Public Spaces in Late Antiquity: Conceptualising 'Constantine' at York as an Ancient Public Commission". Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference. Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference. 177–187. doi:10.16995/TRAC2015_177_187. 
  46. "Roman Bath Museum". 2013. http://www.visityork.org/York-Roman-Bath-Public-House/details/?dms=13&venue=1500315. 
  47. Laycock, M. (13 July 2015). "Roman remains hidden for the past 105 years are revealed again, as works nears completion on new cafe in York". York Press. http://www.yorkpress.co.uk/news/13410255.Roman_remains_hidden_for_the_past_105_years_are_revealed_again__as_works_nears_completion_on_new_cafe_in_York/. 
  48. "Collections Highlights: Archaeology". York Museums Trust. 2018. https://www.yorkshiremuseum.org.uk/collections/collections-highlights/archaeology/. 

Major towns of Roman Britain

Capitals: Londinium (London)Eboracum (York)Camulodunum (Colchester)

Caesaromagus (Chelmsford)Calleva Atrebatum (Silchester)Corinium Dobunnorum (Cirencester)Deva Victrix (Chester)Durovernum Cantiacorum (Canterbury)Durnovaria (Dorchester)Glevum (Gloucester)Isca Augusta (Caerleon)Isca Dumnoniorum (Exeter)Isurium Brigantum (Aldborough) • Lactodurum (Towcester) • Lindum Colonia (Lincoln)Luguualium (Carlisle)Moridunum (Carmarthen)Noviomagus Reginorum (Chichester)Petuaria (Brough)Ratae Corieltauvorum (Leicester)Venta Belgarum (Winchester)Venta Silurum (Caerwent)Verulamium (St Albans)Viroconium Cornoviorum (Wroxeter)

Lost:   Alchester (Wendlebury) Bannaventa (Northamptonshire)Cunetio (Wiltshire)Venta Icenorum (Norfolk)